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.I 

1223 
 . 036 
1912 
• SMC 



A GIçAIII.\R OF 0I.I) llISl 



A GRAVI IAR 
OF 

OLD 

IRIStt 

R:v. F. \V. O'CONNKLL, I.A., B.D. 
FELLOXXSIIIP I'RIZEMANI CLASSIC.kL AND SEMITIC I'tIILOLO(IY 
TIIN[TY COLLE(:E DUBLIN ; 
I.ECURKR IN THle CELTIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATUIRE IN" OEII]] 
QUEEN'S CNIVliSITY (tF BELFAST. 

BELFAST : 
MAYNE, BOYI & SON, 1,TI) 

1912. 



(_'OLLF:II SANI'TAE ET INDI'IDYAE TRINITATIS SO(;'IO 
STX'I»IIS LITTE.XR'3[ PRAE'(}SlTX'S 
I'ATRIAE A3I}RE [N{'ES'N 
LINGVAM NOSTRAM 
AI: }I:I.IX'IONE IW}3IINX'I IN DIGN[TATEM I'IIISTINAM 
PR}P';NATOR INDEFEss'S 
X:IN DIç'AIT. 



vii 

PREFACE. 

TiiURNEY,SEN'S H.dbnch de.' Alt-Irische is destined to 
relmtiu, for many years to corne, the studard grammar of 
Old Irish. Ulffortulmtcly it is a sealcd hook to the lmjority 
of our h-ish studcnts who are hot ac,luaintcd with thc 
(,ci lllall language, altl couseqtlCnt]y the want of a gl'almUal" 
iii English has 1,een felt in many ,luarters. Silme it is a l,art 
of luy duties at this Ulfiversity to deliver two lectures on 
Ohl lrish GralmUm" weekly dul'ilg Terre, I undertook a 
year ago to l,roduce a gralnmar which should at least prove 
useful as a book of reference, and after malW distractious I 
have completed it. ]t has proved by no means au easy task to 
COml,ress the iluportalt fitcts of Old h'ish gramluar, together 
with the ildisl,ensahlc iltdices, within the prcscribed liluits 
of about two lmlldl'ed pages, and lin Olm can be more keeldy 
conscious of the preseut work's defects than the author-- 
but i.s. leov 6 JIh6v a db.he«dl. 
My best thanks are due, in the fil'st l,lace, to Dr. Rudolf 
Tlmrlmysen for his kind permission to make use of his 
Handbuch and to adopt some of his classifications in the 
hope of winning for them general recognition. I may here 
express also my indebtedness to Zcuss' Gr««mmatica Celtica, 
Pedersen's lvgle&hende Gvammatik clef AItischet 
Sprachen and Aspir(tt&»wn i Ivsk, Vendry(s' Grammaire 
du cieil ivl, ndai., Sarauw's Ir'ke Stud&r, Strachan's Old 
L'i«h P(tvadigm« and Select&n.' ri'oto the Gloses, the 
The..at«vns P«daeohfbcrnicu., and numel'oUs articles in the 
Rewte Celtique, Zeit.«hvtft fiiv Celti.she Philolog&, and 



viii 
/5"iu. My tlmnks are also due t.o Professor O. ,l. Bergin 
of the Nation:d University, Mr. E. J. Gwynu, F.T.C.I)., 
Mr. Walter J. l'urtou, and to my colleagues l'rofessor I:. 
3I. tIenry an(] Mr. A. O. 13elour for rea.ding proofs and 
for many va.luahlc suggestions; further to the Fiua.nee 
Committee of this Univcrsity for a grant in aid of 
pul,lica.tion : an(t lastly to 3h'. John Boyd of the firm of 
3la)me & Boyd for the eourteous interest whieh he bas 
displa.yed and the eaveful supervision which he has exereised 
in the 1,rodu«'tion of thc work. 
To the scholar I apologise for the liberties [ have taken 
in thc translitcration of Sanskrit words, esl,ceiMly lu the 
mattcr of Visarga, lmt [ di,1 hot cmsider that they oecurred 
so frequently as to wavraut thc cxpensc of lWocuriug special 
type. 
The Appcmlix contaiuiug grammatical terres [ hve 
;t(lded in m'der fo show lrish stndeuts who are imerestcd lu 
the preservati,n ;tud dcvclopmcut of the Mdcr ]angnage 
how, by a l,roccss partly of I)oldly borrowing, partly of as 
1,oldly tra.slating, out nnccstors overcamc thc dilticulty of 
new technical terres. 
In conclusion lct roc direct the studeut's attention to the 
list of Corrigenda and rcqucst, him to [ollow the advice of 
the ohl glossttor' coc, vt  ' 
FEAltI)()RCIIA UA CONAILL. 

QUEE' UI[\ERSITY, |ELFA,'ST. 
:lid,'hi ]';ilc l'df{_icc, 1DI.'. 



ix 

SUBJECT INDEX. 
[The refeFt'Flct's are to laragraphs.] 
Abstracts, formation of, 65. 
Ad.iectivcs, (,,rmati, m of, 67 : declcnsiou of, 68-72 : compariou «,f, 
73 75 ; irt'cgulav COmlmrison of, 76. 
Atlvcrlm, 7S, 9li, 256. 257. 
Article, 42. 43 ; with dcmonstrativcs, 45, 46, 
Aspir«tion, 9, l-t: 1.ss of, 17. 
(a.'cs, uscs of, 66. 
C,,mpesatory Leugthcning, 25. 
('oml«muds ,)f  .hi, 21"2. 
('onjm,cti ris, "' -")-- 
C«msonants. double., lS: qualily of, 19: gr.ups of. 1 ; ,rigiual initial 
aml final, 2[ ; loss of, 25 ; ovigin of, 41. 
Çolmla , 203-2[ l. 
Dt.paltalizati«n, 22. 
Dimhmtivc, fl»rmatim-f, 
I )[phthongs, 34. 
Flcxiu, ahsolu and coujunct, 11 [ ; modes .f, 
Fra(.ti-ns, 
Future, store, 13[ ;.tfuturc, 132, 133: t-future, [5; s-future, 
prvtcritc, 134; asigmativ, 135: rcduplic,t.d, 135: 
1 IV.. 135 ; fin-ms without rcduidicati,m, 137 ; reduplicated 
.,-future, 138 ; l)rctcritc, 13!. 
 cmhmtion, lfi. 
Ili«lcs, 32, 33. 
Impcrative, 124. 125. 
Iu(licativc, present, l l: prenent deponeut. 120: prvsent passive. 
1"2"2 : imwrfcct, 123. 
Interrogative l'articles, «., 
Lcnition. 9. 14. 
Loa n-w«»rd, 258 26 l. 

Metathcsis, 26. 



x 

Ns;dizat i«»n, 15. 
Nega(ives 101. 
Noum 47 : deeIensi-n »f, 49 ;4 : irregular dt.clensi«m of. 
N,mn St.ems, v,»edic, 48 : eousoumt:fl, 5ï. 
Nmuenfls, ïg, 80  numend substantives, SI. 

Orth.gral»hY. 4, 8. 
Pu'ti«-iple, ImS passive, 17.3 ; .f ncccssity, 153. 
Prelmsiti.ns , 215 
['re$erite, sgcm. 140: S-lU'¢'$erite, 141, 14; /-pretcrite. 143, 144: 
sulfixlcss, 145 : rcduplicatcd, 145, 14i : irrcgulm rcduplieati« 
147: tmredul»licated, 14S: irrcgulrr mrcdul»licated, 149. 
15 : passive prescrite stem. 151. 
['rcvcrhs, 102. 
l'mclitics, vovalism of. 41t. 
i.lixed, $5: alfixed, Sri: sultixed, ST; sulfixed t. l»rep,»siti«ms, 
N8 9o: intcrr,,gtie, 91 : dem.mstrative. 93: indelinite. 
Prommciati,m, 4, S. 
Quality, 19 ; change of, 20 : eonfusit»n t»f, 23. 
Relative, how exl»rcssu. 9; leniting relative sentenues. 
nasalizing. 90: genitivc of, I00. 
llo, ot" I)ossihility, 103; uses of, 11t: l»»siti.n of, litS. 
Self, 9 l. 
Strmg Vcrbs, paradin of. llft Il{; : table of, page 
Snhjmtctive. store, 12t;: a-subjmctivc, 126 12S: -suhjunc[ive, 
126, 19, 130. 
Syneopation, 3ï. 
Tense-stems, 109. 
V¢rhal nomes, 151. 
Vcrl)s, 1i}8 ; strong and weak, 1 Il) : nmnhcr and pcrson, I I 1 : relative 
f.rms. 11: classifieati.n of, 115: pcrsonal cmlings, 113, 117. 
119, 121, I2l ; of existence. 13 ; dcfecçive, 
Vovels, in aecented syllables, 2 ; in nmrccentcd syllables, 35 
unaccented in cl«»sed syllables, 36: dcvelpment of new. 
vovel-eontracçion, 39. 
SVeak Vcrhs, para[igm of, 155-175. 



xi 

TABLE OF (gRAMMATICAL TERM.n AND YMP.OLS. 
Aulaut = the initial som,d of a word. 
Al»solute anlaut = the initial sound of a word unatlçcted by 
a preceding souud. 
Inlaut =a souud occurring in thc interior of a 
word or syllable. 
Auslant = the final sound of a word. 
Ablaut = variation of the root-vowel. 
Sh'va =thc Hcbrew naine of the obscure unac- 
cented vowel like e in Eng. bcgin, 
Proto-Kcltie = thc Keltic language belote its division into 
the Gadelic and Ih-itmmic lwanchcs. 
Ih'ototonic = accented on thc first sllable. 
Deutcrotonic = accented on thc second syllablc. 
< = redueed from. > = redueêd to. 
 denotes a hypothetical form. In the paradigms of the 
vcrbs, forms in parentheses are such as do hot occur but 
may be safely deduced. 
l'rototonic verbal forms are denoted by a point prefixed 
thus-/wad. 

Bret. 
Goth. 
Gk. 
Dot. Gk. 
Id.-G. 
Lat. 
O. Lat. 
Med. I,at. 
Lett. 
Lith. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

= Armelfian. 
-=- Breçon. 
-- Gothic. 
= Greek 
= Doric Grcek. 
= Indo-Gêrmanic. 
= Latin. 
= Old Latin. 
= Medieval Latin. 
= LettM. 
= Lithuanian" 
BI« of Arm. 

(}.il.G. = Old High Gernmn. 
O. SI. = Old Slavonic. 
Skr. = Sanskrit. 
W. = Welsh. 
Ml. = Milan Glosses. 
S.G. = St. Gall Glosscs. 
Tur. = Turin Glosses. 
Wh. = Wiirzburg Glosses. 
L.U. = Lebor ha h-Uidri. 
Hh. = Handbuch. 
Thurn. = Thurneyseu. 

= Book of Armagh. 
= Vergleichende Grammatik. 



xii 

('ORR I 1 EN I A. 

l':tge 7 line 17 fol'.led read f[ad 
30 ,, 21 ,, -fli-stelns ,, Ça- (ê-) stems 
" 33 5 ,, mM,'e ,, mulet 
' ' IIost' 
37 26 ,, host' ,, 
,, 37 ,, 27 l';l'iu ,, 
,, 40 ,, 26 ,, of ,lesus ,, of [.u Jesus. 
,, 45 ,, ll.12 ,, e.q. ,, eq. 
,, 45 ,, ")7, 33 ,, jiriSm &-c. ,, fh'idn, &c. 
46 ,, 36, 37 ,, vo" co 
47 1 ,, nasalization ,, lenition 
57 ,, 30 ,, n. side, 1,1. sidi ,, ri. side, pl..idi 
,. 58 ,, 211 
63 ,, "2 ,, «oïnl«t«]ttnav ,, 



INTRODUCTION. 
Old Irish may be divided into three stages as follows :-- 
First Stage, represented by many Ogham inscriptions 
and a few early inscriptions in the Roman character. The 
chier clmracteristic of this stage is the retcntiçm of some of 
the original e«se endiugs, e.g. muqi (int,'ci), inigeu, Erciu. 
Second Stage, reln'esenicd by later iuscriptions in the 
loman ehar«teter, the l)rim«« m«m.' of the Wfirzlmrg 
I:losscs, the Cml)rai Homily, the Tnrin l)alimpsest, the 
Uodiccs Philargyrii, and the h'ish names recordcd in the 
llook of Armagh by Muirchu maccu Macthéni and T/re- 
chin, and iu Adamnan's 17fa Col«»bae. This stage is 
charactcrizcd by the preservatiou of long d and 5, of tle 
truc (lildthongs 6 aud d[, of unacccutcd Y and 6 letwcen 
non-palatal cousonants, of pretonic to (lu) in verbs, of i 
a«l e aftcr non-palatal consonants, and of -o in gen. shlg. 
of-[-and ce-stems, e.g. Cërm, F¢cc, .oo., ood, L6ig,ire, 
05gn,, B(iit«h, 6ih'hd, Aclcd, 6('lter, cdo«lt, tuthégot, 
to»cova, Capl[t, uvgit, Ail«llo, br5tho. 
Third Stag. rcprcscnted by the rest of the Viirzburg 
and othcr Continental Glosses : pieces of Ohl Irish prose in the 
Book of Armagh, Lcbor ha h-Uidre and other MSS.: Old h'ish 
l,ocms ai St. G«dl, Milan, aud St. Paul's KIoster, Crinthia; 
F:lh'c Ocngusso, and the Irish Hymns in the I.iber tlym- 
norum. In the langnage of this stage é and 5 h:tve 1)ccome 
[(« and «a, ol and u[ arc written oe and ae, ê and 6 in 
mmcccnted syllables > a, i and e after no»palatal con- 
sonants are written ai (i) and ac, pretonic fo (tu) > do 
(d), ad -o in gen. sing. of -[- and -u- stems > a; e.g. 
Ci«n'an, stas, LocgMre, Bet«b, A«ld, edaclt, do- 
thh«g«t, avgait, brdtha. The vcrlal fol'm t,th¢got (2nd 
stage) contains thvee ahaisms in as nmny syllables, riz. 
tn- (later do-, dt-), -thég- (latcr -tli[(«g-), -or (later ««/), I,re- 
historic Irish = 
As the First Stage is represented merely by inscriptions 
composcd of proper names linked togethcr by means of 
m(«q[ or avi, and as the Second Stage is 1,ractically confined 
to proper names or glosses consisting of shglc wmls, Old 
h-ish grammar d'aws its matcrial chiefiy from the Third 
Stage. The forms dcalt with in the present wm'k are mainly 
those which occur in the Tlesauvis 
Thc total pcriod covered by the three stages is, muglfly, 
fmm the fifth to the tenth century. 



I.--PHONOLOGY. 
1. Tbe cumbersome Oglmm all,habet, itself I)ased on 
the Latin all)habet, witb its curions system of easily con- 
fused «lots and strokes (in ft it resembled a signa.llh)g 
code rather than an alphabct), was soou abandoned in 
favom" of the Roman. The latter, although more con- 
vcnieut for literary purposcs, was far from being a 1)erfect 
medium for the representation of Irish sounds, the rcsult 
being that one letter frequently reprcsented two distinct 
somds, so that a sentence in Old Irish is ahnost as i)wom- 
plete orthographcally as a sentence in unpohted Hebrew. 
2. The letters k, y, aud z only occur in forcign words, 
e.g. pr[d krtlde (p'[die kaleda.), ymmo (hymnum), 
baitzisi (from b«tptizo); q is fomd in loan words as 
aeqttinocltt qttnt't-, and also in Irish .ti.¢qtte (l)robably afte" 
the mmlogy of Lat. tsque); x is sometimes used for ch.% 
e.g. oxalib from oclts(tl = («xillet, fo.ced as well as fochsal. 
3, h represented no sound, although a geminc h-sound 
existed in Ohl h'ish. Its principal uses seem to have 
been (a) to We greater substauce to monosyllahles con- 
sisting of only one or two letters, e.g. hi, h5, hé, hed, for 
i, 6, é, ed ; (b) in such words as huile, hui.se to prevent the 
Latin prommciation vile, v¢se ; (c) to mark hiatus in cases 
like Is'ahel, ro-htcad, rele, ch, lb, plt were used to repre- 
sent the sl,irmts x, ]', f (c is sometimes written for ch, e.g. 
act, fect, cumacte); ph is used instead of f vheu the 
spiraut results from an aspiratcd p and at. the Cl(l of a 
syllablc, e.g. in phrecept5ri, olph, neph-[; when the 
spirant arises from the aspiration of primitive .%« eitherf 
or ph is used, e.g. litfed and tittphed (for -.«ed). Al*art 
from tbesc uses h seems to bave hcen an ort.hographic:fl. 
luxury. (h is owe miswritten for clé, riz. mettmnihi Wh. 
18 a 21, and once used to mark a long vowcl, riz. TERNOHC 
in an Old h'ish inscript.io).) 
4. g, d, b, m, represented not only the voiced stops and 
labials but also thc voiced spirauts T, , ff, g (nasal v); 
c, t, p, represcnted botb voiceless aud voiced StOl,S, the 



3 

latter aftêr vowe|s and sometimes aftcr consonants, c, t, p, 
rcpresent voiceless stops in absolute anlaut, aIter vowcls 
either voiccless or voiced shq)s; g, d, b, m, l'cpresclt 
voiced stops and the labio-nasal () in absolute anlaut, (b) 
when doubled, (c) ll the cousonantal groups nd, ld, mb ; 
after vowels and most consonants they may reprcsent 
cither 'oiced stops or voiccd sprauts. 
The following expansion and illustration of thc above 
ru]cs may prove useful to the student : 
Thc souuds k, t, p, are written : 
l. c, t,p, at the beg[nning of a word not 1,receded 1)y 
:mother word caming nasalization ; e.g. co..a, tir, peccad ; 
hut «« cossa, a rb', a peccad (meallng 'their feet, &c.') 
arc souuded a go.sa, a (lb', a bec«ad. 
2. c, or cc, t, p, in the interior or at the end of a word, 
çc usually after l, r, s ; e.g. ol«c, .e'cc, coacc, macc, ic or icc, 
fi'eccor or fi'ecor, ata, art, 
The sounds g, d, b, are written : 
l. g, d, b, at the beghming of a word ami precedcd 
 ord causilg aspiration ; e.g. guth, dd, bd. ; but a 
a dd, a bds (meaning 'his voicc, &c.') arc sounded 
a utl, a &, a ride. 
2. c or ce, t, p, in the iaterior or at the end of a word, 
e.g. de, becc, do.wc«s, fot (Mod. I. çaa), apa[g. 
:L gg, dd, bb, in S.G. and k. of Arm. in the saine cir- 
cumstances as 2, e.g. arggit, codeHgg, ardd, abb«Hth. 
The sounds , , ri,  are wr[tten g, d, b, m. 
l. in lenited anlaut, e.g. fter a 'hs,'a gut], a dd, 
et be, a mdthir. 
2. in the inlaut and auslaut after vowels and most con- 
sonants, e.g. tige ldg, adrad, lobur, marb, demb,, larum. 
A comparison of the various spellings found is necessary 
in order to dctermine the souud in some instances, thus, 
that the g, d, b, m of condelg, ard, burbe (second b), 
yuidb, are unlenited is proved by the Val'iants coMelc, 
art, burpe, 9uidbnm. 



In douhtful cascs the Modern language is the only guide. 
Prohably ,/,/3, v had each two prommciatiots as in Modern 
h'ish, riz. b-r¢«ul =a voiced velar spirant,/ a rotmded 
bilabial spirant, = nasal ff; de»uler y =a voiced palatal 
aspirant,  = an unroundcd bilabial spirant,  = nasal ditto. 
5. Long vowcls are usually denoted by an acute accent, 
in the oldcr MSS. sometimes by doubling, e.g. b(tt, bee, 
,'tt ; in cascs of doubling frequcntly the accent is also 
employcd and is thon wl'itten indiflrently over thc first or 
second vowel : similarly in the case of the long diphthongs, 
c.g. di or «rg, di or o[, which for grammatical purposes are 
in this book writtcn im'ariably (tf, o[, in order to distinguish 
them from a long vowel followed by the glide i as in ldbm 
6. A dot writtcn over the letters s and f denotes lenition, 
it is also written ovcr the transposcd  and » i nasalized 
;mlaut, e.g.i. 5t.se )duit, dered i,betho, and over t in 
inlaut ])etwcen two consonants, e.g. J)'e«idctir«, ]br)g«tire. 
7. In MSS. words which group themselvcs togcther 
about a l»rincipal accent arc writcn as one word, c.g. 
trhfflC..dS"ge,om, hicecho5«daithe. The following are 
somc of the contractions cmployed : 
 = Lat. et = I. ocus, ' and.' 
 = Lat. vel = I. n6, le, ' or.' 
«1h = oma/(older cmcdl), ' likc,' ' as,' 'as if.' 
dU = dalaU, dco, 'then,' 'further,' ' also.' 
dï = (lidite, diclle, ' hence.' 
[lb or i'= llle'gl1, 'moreoer,' 'but,' 'yet.' 
.i. =Lat. h e.t, I. ed 61, 'riz.' 

]:)RONUNCIATION. 
8. The pronunciation of Old h'ish seems to havc dilrered 
con.idcrahly from that of the modern dialects, notaldy in 
the folh»ing l,articulars :--th was a voicelcss spirant and 
dh a voieed spirant as proved 1)y the Oh| Ieelandic tran- 
seriptions of Irish names, e.g. Dfj']»alr= Du.btla«h, Tagkr 
= T«dV. Short vowels were noL lengthened by groups or 



5 
by dying consonauts, e.g. tîgë, cëmt, gërv, âvd, &c. ; final 
î and ë were quite distinct, e.g. céle, cgli ; lenited b, m, d, g, 
were fully l,ronounced and did hot lengthen or diphthongize 
preceding short vowels. In Modern h-ish th has hecome 
an h-souud, and dh is lwonounced like gh except thttt in 
aulaut hefore e or i, dh bas a weaker articulation than gh 
in similar positions. 

A,PIRATION OR LENITION. 
9. J_n Old I,,,rish.a, sinle consonant betEeeu two yowels 
was more loosely articulated t]ïan inabsoht antud 
Iedtion. Strictly speakiug, aspiration occurs only i the 
ce of the stops c, t, (p in loanwords), g, d, b, aud the 
lahio-nasal -m, which are thereby rcduced to the spirants 
X, ]', J , 5, ff, ; the spirants .% £ the liquids l, r, and 
the nasal n, undergo a similar change more properly called 
lenition. 
10. The aspirated forms of c, t, p, are representcd in 
writing by ch, th, ph, (v.  3), and the leuited forms of s, 
and  are (in later MSS.) dcnoted by a dot written over 
the consonants, hi SG. and later MSS. the piration of 
c, t, p, is also marked by writing the sign for thc Greek 
.Tirits a.er over the consonants. ]n tbis phonolo 
lcnited g, b, l, m, n, r are denoted by the Greek letters 
7, ri, ,k, , v, p. 
11. ch represents the vclar and palatal voiceless spirants, 
i.e. ch in German ach and ich ; for the sounds of the other 
spirants v.  3, 4, 8. Lenited s was prouounced as h, 
lenitcd f was silcut and consequently sometimes omltted 
altogcthcr in writing, e.g. immolag for immfoh«g; in 
this case lenitiou occurrcd before pre-historic Le had de- 
vclol,ed to  and the lenitiou of « produces a more breath, 
cf. English e'e»', e'en. from ecer, ecen. A true lcnitcd f 
occurs in Modern h'ish and is prouounced h, e.g. md fbCn 
(hd[n), ghofi«d (gl(ohad). 
12. l, n, r had each four distinct sounds which I repre- 



sent by the following symbols :--t = a dcuta|-guttural l, the 
thick 1 of Sl,vonic languages closely resembling thc genuine 
English sound of 1 in mflk, mild ; l= lenitcd form of t, the 
ordinary alveolar 1 in English lot ; L = the palatal lateral l, 
English ll in milb))n; /'=lcnited L, an alveolar 1 with 
slight palatalization. 
11 = an aml,idcntal nasal, the thick t of Slavonic languages, 
somewhat like initial n iu Frcnch ton; n=lcnited 11, 
alveolar n as in English hot ; N= the palatal nasal English 
ni i pbion, French gn in age(tn ; n'=lenitcd  a 
slightly palatalizcd alveolar n. In the Modern lrish 
dinlects of Connacht and Ulster the abovc distinctions of 
the souads of 1 and n are still observcd, but of the cor- 
rcsponding r- serics only to sounds renmin, riz., p and r'. 
13. l, , are uulenited 
in anlaut after mlenitcd s, (c) 
(d) in anlaut in the D'oup l ([t are assimilated to ç and 
L), (e) in anlaut hcfore », t, d, and ', (f) Il,  between 
vowels or in auslaut=unleuited l, n. r probably re- 
maincd unlcnited in similu" positions, but herc the modcrn 
languagc gives littlc assistance towards reconstruction. 
ASPIRATION AND LENITION IN ANLAUT. 
14. Aspiration or lcnition of a consonant occurs-- 
A 
(et) :tftcr thc dat. sg. of the articlc and of substantives. 
(b) aftcr thc uom. sg. of all feminine nouns. 
((') aftcr thc gen. sg. of masc. and neuf. uouns and the 
nom. l,l. çf masc. nouns of o- and io- stems. 
(d) aftcr the nom. and roc. pl. of neut. nouns except 
wheu they end in -et, in which case thc use varies. 
(e) after the nom. acc. and gen. dual masc. atd fem. 
(f) after the neuter substat.ive pronoun edetill, the 
interrogative pronouns ciM, ced cid, the pers. l,ronoun st 
(' she'), thc possess, prououus mo, m- ; do, t-, a (masc. and 
ncut.) : the infixcd pers. prououus -m, -t and 3rd g. m.t. 
et, (i)d. 



B 
After verbd forms as follows : 
(a) after the absolute forms of the COl,ula in relative 
sentences. 
(b) after ail forms of the imperative and the 3rd s. 
pret. subj. 
(c) after the conjunct forms of the Colmla which are 
monosyllabic, with the exceptiou of thc 3rd sg.-did, -dib. 
-dit), and thc forms which bave hecolne monosyllabic by 
contraction, e.g., -bin,-bti., -btnr, -isa in the pret., &c. 
(There are some exceptions in Wh). 
(d) after »a.u, ce«u, pl. cetu, ceto. 
(e) in later Old h'ish aftel" other verl_.s, whethcr the 
followi word be object, subject» or adverb. 

After uninflected words : 
(a) after the preps. (tm«l, av, cer, di, do, ]ied, fo, bn. ', 
6 (a), 6.« (ues), tre, trL 
(b) after proelitic prepositious and verbal partieles in 
relative scntencês. 
(c) After the partiele vo (vu) when enclitie and preceded 
by a preposition or verbal partiele. 
(d) after t.he eonjunetions oct., o (nd), fa (bot), and 
usually «ffter e, clct (ce), co, 6, and amal except where 
nasaliza»ion interferes, t.he negative ¢con, tacon. 
(e) after the particle a (d)used with the 'ocative, and 
the eml,hatic su, so used with l,el's, pronouns. 
The second member of a compound has its initial con- 
sonant aspirated or lenited : 
(a) when the first member is a noun or adjective or a 
llnnleral. 
(b) afer the inseparable l,refixes so- (.t-), do- (du-), ni-. 
(c) afer the prepositions aith (ath), air (er-, i'), d[ (de), 
fo, imb (/mOn)), bd, 'em, 'o, tarin, fo : in later glosses 



after coin-, j'rith-, ictrm-, and sometinleS after .lot" ald etct; 
from allalogy with air. This rule holds good for 'erbal 
Conlpouuds also exccl, whcn Che 1,1-cposiiol is pt.ctolliC. 
In shore aspiration (leniion) occurs wherever a consonant. 
was originally vowel-flauked, thus do. çhenetl, be 
,'lg-tide are for oldcr dod£ cegl, bend cobaye, -lgo- 
.'0(i08. 
'ASAI,IZATION. 
15. N)- i the 1)honetihatg)roduced in the 
x'ord. }- m origal fial  o1" mY«,f the 1,reeed- 
ing 'Ol'd. Befol'e a vowel or d the original  reappears : 
 g have m aud n (i.e. o) prefixed : c, t, (1) au'e ehallged 
to g, d, (b), f to v : s " 1 m , when a vowel precedes, are 
doubled, lu writing ltas«tliza$iOll is show cleal'ly Ollly iii 
the case of vowels aud nediae, and douhling is frequently 
neglectcd. Wben tu'o Wol'ds are 'qtten apart n is some- 
times placed separately bet'eeu them, sometimes transposed 
to the iuitial of the seeolld wa'd ; lu I,¢,th cases the n bas 
usually the pltctttt dele txed, e.g. doch«m » dée or 
do¢'htttt )dée. 
Sometimes the t is omitted before a word benning 
'ith h, e.g. dochttm hb'i.se, but clochttt -b'i..çe when the 
h is hot writen. 
Somctines the inter'entiou of an enclitic word between 
the auslau and anlaut concerned does uot 1,revent the 
aspiration or nasalization taking place, e.g.i.ç .¢ i.o chiall 
(where cbiall is aspirated by .¢, déde diditt t-ad (where 
dgde causes the uasalization t-ad) 
Nalization is fOulld il the followiug cases : 
A 
(a) after the acc. sg. and gen. plut. of all genders ald 
the nom. sg. of neuters excep alaill, ha (' some') ced (cid) 
and the Jufixed pers. prououn 3rd @. neuter. Other neuters 
which did llot origin«lly end in -t cause llasalization from 
analogy. 



(b) after tlle numerals c6c and sé in the gen. plural. 
(c) after all the neuter cases of the dual and after the 
dat. dual of ail genders. 
(d) after the infixed pers. pronouns of the 3rd sg. masc. 
«, d, and sometines after the 3rd sg. fena. and 3vd plur. s. 
(e) after the plural possess, pronouns ct', fiv, a (' their '), 
whieh are really old gens. plut. 

B 
After verbal forms: only after the absolute relative 
forms of the copul in relative sentences and sonletinles 
in interrogative sentences, e.g. cit -é= ' Who are they ?' 

C 
After uninflected words : 
(rt) after the numerals secht, ocht, ot, deich (hot in 
compounds). 
(b) after the relative particle (s)rt, the conjunctions a 
(while), arct, dia, co (cocO, hua ' (6-a"). 
(c) after the interrogative partiele h (ira belote b). 
(d) after the prepositions eo ('with'), [, la»', 'e ('ia) ; 
after the eompound lwepositions dochum, in-degcdd, tct'-ési 
(whieh are in reality lwepositions and nouns iu the aee. sg.) 
the anlaut is nasalized only when iç bears the principal 
accent. 

I.EMINATION. 
16. Gemination is the dottbling o__rjengçhen_i_ng o_f the initi,al 
c9nsofi-2(',o, a_Vord due___ ths assimilatiolï of .the fin_.al 
consoang of the. prec, gdiaag..a'xrd (usually an original 
I--eprësented in writing only after vowels when 
words are written together. In Modern Irish the only 
trace of gemination lefg is the h- prêfixed to vocalic 
anlau after vocalic auslaut, e.g. nx h-6se, . 
te h-êlae. 



10 

Gemination is fouud : 
A 
(a) after the article (na, na=orinal s5dd.) in the 
gen. sg. fera., nom. pl. fera. and neuter: and acc. pl. of all 
genders, e.g. innc¢mmaccu (acc. pl. masc.),fovcmmorchol 
(acc. pl. heur.). 
(b) after the nom. and acc. sg. neuter nec, 'some.' e.g. 
nannçncdled. 
(c) after the interrogative c[a (which also aspirates), a 
'ber' (a = orinal "es[ds): and after the infixed pers. pro- 
nouns da, ta, a, as 3rd sg. fcm. and 3rd pl. 
B 
After forms of the copula : 
(a) after the pretcrital and modal 3rd sg. ha except in 
relative sentences. 
(b) after ni= original 
C 
(a) fter the prepositions a (original eks), co, Jv[, la. 
(b) all prepositions which end in a vowel, the particles 
fo, no, and the negtives ni {mani, coni, &c.), nd 
conna), when no infixed pronoun is attached douhle the 
anlaut of the following verb or verbal compould, except 
relative sentences. 
(ç) after ama between comparatives, e.g. 
ma..a, ha, ' nor ', nd ' six' except lu gen. 1,1., the particle a 
used heforc numerals. 

Loss or' Asem.VrlOl (LE.NITION). 
17. When, owing fo syncopation, two aspirated conson- 
ants of the saine class came together they both gave up their 
aspiratiouç and when one aSl,irated consonant united with 
another unaspirated homornic consonant the saine resuit 
ensued; thus ch+ch, or ch+c, or c+ch.>c,; th+th, 
or th + t, or t + th = t : e.g. tecte = teg-gn5th-de 
Tn]-e), .mitter - midther (m+er), mcrclr= marc-chb'. 



11 

Aspirated t and d Iost their aspiration after l, t, ., and 
belote ,. After s aspirated d not only gave up its aspira- 
tion but 1,eeame unvoieed, e.g. bé.ste, bds.te, < bés-e, 
bds-ge. Lenited l and n. lost their lenition belote d, t, 
r, s, and after l, '. The al»ove l»honetie changes do not 
invariably appear in wl'iting owing to the etymologieal 
spellings, just as in Modern h'ish we write co,, tolSça. 
but pronounee coF., 

I)OUBLE CONSONANT,q. 
18. Double eonsonants frcquently m'ise through com- 
position or syneopation, e.g. frercor <fi'et-cor, brotn < 
b'tsto., a»tt tts < ad-me.s.; or in latcr Ohl Irish by assimi- 
lation of td, Id, ê.g. imta < btda, 2ttallacht < 2taldadtt. 

QUALITY OF TtlE CON,qONANTS. 
19. In OIdIrish every eonsonantexeeptthelabials hadthree 
distinct pronuneiations, riz., pal«t«tl, tetttral, and 'elar: 
or as it is sometimes expressed an i-quality, an a-quality, 
and an t-quality. A consonant has the i-quality belote or 
after e or i, e.g. cé, c[a, [ce : the a-quality before or after 
a or o, e.g. c«tra, cos, .(tccat ; the t-quality before or aftcr 
t, e.g. er't, .'ucct. In the first case the middle of thê 
tongue is raised fo the hard palate, in the second the baek 
of the tongue is raised to the soft palatejust behind the hard 
palate, in the third the baek of the tongue touches the 
baek portion of the soft palate while the lips are protrudcd 
and roundêd. In Modern Irish the a- and t-qualities are 
elassêd together as non-palatal (Le.ç«n) in eontradistinetion 
to the palatal or i-quality (c,oL), but the distinction in 
pronuneiation between the a- and t-qualities is still marked 
in many cases. In the case of the labials palatalization is 
impossible, but as thê lips are protruded when the labial is 
prêeeded or followêd by a, o, or t. and retraeted when it 
is preeeded or followed by e or i this protrusion or retrac- 
tion of the lips forms for the labials a distinction eorres- 
ponding to the palatal and non-palatal pronuneiations of the 
other eonsonants. 



12 

(*HANGE OF QUALITY. 

20. When two consonants of ,lifferent quality corne 
together owig to syneopation the second consonant (except 
in the case of u-qualit.y+i-quality) takcs as a rule the 
quality of thc first: thus non-p..+pal. > non.p.e.g..fodlat 
(5  X ) from fo-dalet («-X'); pal.+non-p.>pal, e.g. 
aithrea (1,/ p) from %tthera (1,- o «') ; pd. +u-quality> 
pal. e.g. abgliu (gi Ai) from ïa{gilu (fil _ Au) ; but u-quality 
+pal.>p:d. e.g. fox, de (T' ') from fo-gnde (g,,_i). 
Compounds are au exception to the above rules. 

CONSONANTAL GIOUPS BEFORE e, i. 
21. ]efore syncopation had taken 1,lace, and l)eforc the 
loss of the vowel of the final syllable, if a group of two or 
more difl?rent consonants stood before e or i only the last 
consonant of thc group was 1)datal. When the group, 
through the loss of the followiug vowel, came to stand at 
the end of the syllahlc the wholc group became palatal : if, 
however, thc vowel was retained, the whole m'oup after- 
wards became non-palatal in accordance with t.he rule given 
in § 20, e.g., .ç'erc nmde its dat. sg. seirc (r  k ) Irom .e.rki, 
but its gen. sg. scrcae 
The consonantal gt'oups t)t, IXp m', td, dc (=g) 
had become palatal at an early time, and accordingly 
remained palatal cven before a retaiued vowel, e.g., immbi, 
clainde, cuimrech. Siugle l, r, , if they had 1)een orin- 
ally 1,receded hy a consonant (the loss of which was 
represented hy compensatory lengthening of the vowel), 
actcd like consommtal groups, e.g., 9abdh«e, gen. sg. of 
9ab61 from -'» gabaglS, .so-..célae for «so-.scetle ; céle (from 
-"-keglio.ç') is a,t exception, but it has followed the analogy 
of aile, alaile. The group cht is always non-palatal. 

DEPALATALIZATION, 

22. At the beginning of a syllable when preceded by 
d, u, o or da, the labials b, p, f, m, and the gutturals g, c, 
ch, »g become no-l)alatal, e.g., opai»" (dat.. sg.) from Lat. 



13 

ope'a ; cntimai llOlll. 1,1. of cm'tire : ungae = uncia, lit the 
second stage of Old lrish thc palatal quality as still 
l'etained in unaceented syllal,les, e.g. o«hetl, uailhed, J'ugell, 
toceth ; le,tel', achad, uathatl, fit,.lall, tocad. (see further 
Bergin, Èriu III.) 

CONFUSION OF rg- AI'i]D (t-{UALITIES. 
23. Thc consonants ch, cc, th (and the d= which 
(levclolS front it.), ,s in auslaut after original a hae thc 
a-qualit.y instead of wquality, e.g. cath (stem ('atu), 
coml,Otlld cocttd<*com-calh ; mttcc dat. sg. fl'Oll llt(t¢'C[t, 
çc: laldals and guttuvals whi('h i lhe eavlier glosses 
usu;dly havc the u-quality, gvadually assume the a-quality 
the later glosses, c.g. comnuil, menmuin, .ce('huin, ltrtel" 
comail, me»main, .ce«haiu. 

()IHI;INAI INITIAL CONSONANTS. 
24. Original s in the aldaut of proclitic Wol'ds is lost, e.g. 
it from *senti, lat..s.unt ; ttm¢til fl.ol .s'amttil, lat. 'imili. ; 
thc arLiclc iml, a for «iml, ..en ; t in the ,saine position 
changes to d, e.g. do, dar, for oldcr to, tar. 

OI:.IGINAL FINAL CONSO!NANTS. 
Original fiual r, rt, It, cht, t (i.e. d or dd) fl'om -rit 
(-rot), are rctained, e.g..iu»., Lat. o»'o»', .be»'at (for beroM) ; 
dét (for denO, W. dant. 
Final m was chuged to n bcfore it was lot ; it reappears 
bcfore vowels and d, e.g. deich n-uai. (for -dekn):fer 
n-Étend for %tiran. Singlc d, t, k, t, (from-n or-m), 
disappearcd in absolute ausl;utt ; also thc groups-ks,-t', 
-t.s.,-st, probably after first being l'educed to single % 
e.g. tod > t6, ka'dt > .cara, %'êl, > '[, »ên > ml, 
" karant. > car(a)e,  steihst > .te;. 

Loss OF CONSONANTS. 
25. t3y dissimiltiol, c.g. jbr.rolchtm <for.ro-cchan< 



14 

jor.>'o-chcchc,, in-rohjrcdm < in-ro-«gr«i>m  i>v>'o-cde- 
:l>'dm. By reduction of consonantal groul,.% e.g. Uhlia < 
+ dilmh'a, .cum9«tt < + cttm u<d«tt, .ort < + o>'ch t. 

COM PENSATORY ],ENGTHENING. 
lu origimd groul)s of consonants thc spiranis ch, ,  
bctwccn a vowel and » l, », and th bcforc / and », dis- 
al)pearcd ; the lost consommt was compcnsatcd by Icng- 
thening a precc<ling short vowcl. A similar compensation 
sometimes follows the loss of n and nff(). ExamldCS: 
ddr < +d(tchr, ch" < +(tg»', (b'ttm < +t«d'(tm, cd('l < + 
ceucthl, <»> < +eth, cdt < +cent, «:imm < 
v.  26. d, 28. b, 30. b. 

'| ETATIIESIS. 

26. lXIetathesis is frequcnt in Modcrn lrish, but sel<loto 
occurs in Old h'ish ; examl,]es from Ohl lrish are «t,'cnam 
for +(,'.nam from +adco.utm, (,l.comti ; I«ffbo't for 
+lttbgttrt, bd»'le (once) for bdlre. 

THE VOWELS IN ACCENTED YLLABLES. 
27. d rclweseuts 
(a) Id.G. , e.g. mdthh', Lat. inciter, I)or. Gk. 
(b) ]dAL , e.g. d5EE, Lat. d»um, Gk. 
Lat. 6tus, ,oos. 
(c) d ariscs from Id.G. long sommt 
(d) d also arises by compeusatory lengthening, e.g. 

<.ï represents-- 
Lat. «v««t»-u», Gk. };.poïpov. 
(b) }d.G. ,:qh'v (e), e.g. athir, Lat. ptev, Gk. .,,.wip, 
Skr. pitd, Id f'_,. +potêr. 
(c) (ï also arises from Id.G. sommL -, /before vowels and 



15 

spirants, e.g. barr < * bh'.s-, %»m'b < * mmos, all< %)1.% 
t(«,'t<tt'st-; froln Id.G. % '! belote vowÇîs, pirallts 
m, e.g. tàe<t -, (lk. rav«d ; samail<m)-, Gk. la. 
28. d relwesents-- 
(««) Id.G. ei. e.g..tégot<steighot, Gk. «rdXm', Goth. 
sle[ga,. In i:tter ()hl lrish this éwas dil,htlmngized passing 
through da into [(, c.g..ti(,gat, s[as (sêsus), 
(rêgula). 
(b) g m'ises l»y coml,ensatory lengtheling ri'oto ê and «ï 
e.g. ce,él < %e**ethl-, dér < da£'r-, ]g» < «egn-. 
ê represents-- 
(««) Id.G. ç, e.g. ech < %Uy-, Lat. equus; berM< 
%hcreti, l,at. Jbrt, (lk. 
(b) Id.G. ï when the following syllahle eontaincd 
oriNlmlly O, or 5, or 6 whieh had hot 1,eeome -, e.g..lr 
< uiros, jëdb < :d(Iç«? ; (i betore ,d relnained, e.g. 
< «i»dos). 
29.  represents-- 
(a) Id.G. L e.g. '[m, O.H.G. '[m ; Ii, Lat. lror. 
(b) Id.(l. ê. e.g. jTv, Lat. vêrus: 'i<'ê£'s, I,:tt. '«.r; 
lln, Lat. plêms. 
î represents 
(a) 1,1.G. ï, e.g. ibM, Skr. pibati, l,at., bibit. 
(b) Id.(l. g when the following syllahle eontained i or 
e.g. .bim" < bir5 < %ber6, m il < %,eli, cim < ]?'cmff, fur 
(c) sometimes arises froln Id.(l. m and y, e.g. imb< 
mbhi, itgmd < 
30. d represents-- 
((«) Id.G. au, cm, e«: e.g. t,«ath<teut-: hiad, Lat. 
laus landi. ; r««d (older ::rdd) Goth. 'aul,., I,ith. 'audù : 
ldche, Gk. Xe,,gç, Lat. le.r, Id.(l. Ç le«k-. 
(b) d arises by eompensatory lengthening, e.g. «ar (older 
edr)<%gr-; .«'vdn<m'oh»*-; sua (s6»,)<solm-, l,at. 
som«.% Arm. k'«»,; by eontl'aetiol td<to-«o<to-jb. 



16 

 l'cpresets-- 
(a) Id.(. 6, e.g. o«ht, I,at. octo, G]« «-r(5; en'ho, Lat. 
«wbns, (k. 
(b) bi.G.  whcn thc folh,wing sylhtble eont:tined 
c.g. cl,)l] <ek[ttt«m, 
(«) sometimes «ï belote a p:l;tt;tl or n-quality ('OllSOIltllt, 
c.g. boi[l (or baill) 
(a) hl.G.d., e.g. eS1, 
(b) avises from t bcfm'e a yncol,ated cowel, e.g. d}- 
ff rcpresents 
(b) ld.t.  whcn thc following sylhd,lc contabed i () or 
(c) Sometimes «ï bcfm'e a cosonat or cons«mats ith 
ç or u-quality, c.g. 
balb. 
(d) in ' and 
Skr. krmih, Lith. kirmi; db«ig<dlgi. 

G L I D ES. 
32. \Vhcn an ccented sylhblc containing a nou-palat:d 
vowel ,r diphthong ends in a p:datal consonant or con- 
sonantal group, a palatal glide represented l»y i is usually 
inserted belote the consonant or.g'oup, e.g. ldim for hb»; 
tci.t for testi: cl,ti»de for «ltn'd'e. Belote an (t-quality 
ccmsouant or group no glide was represented in writing, 
but tiret a glide was prououneed is shown by Modern Irish 
F¢'.Xl t, Ee.xnS.x. Belote wquality consonants a glide t was 
inscvtcd after ,ï, ê, î (somctimcs an -glide aftcr ê belote ch), 
c.g. bot tll < «balb« ; neuçh or woçh < & »wçb « ; .bitr < bimt. 

GLIDES BEFORE ¥-}WELS IN AU.LAVT. 
33. A palatal glidc is usually insertcd bctwcen a palata| 
I?OIl.qOlltllE Ol" COllSOlltlAlt$ alld ,% ill;tl (7, O, O1" H, e.g. toim.eo 



17 

(i.e. sio) e..çeirgiu (/'u). In older MSS. as a fuie no glide 
is written between a non-palatal consonant and final e or, 
although the word must bave been pro»tomwed with a non- 
palatal glide, e.g. ch(fmi d[gle, later c»dmai, diglae. In 
still later MSS. final -cee becomes -a, and -eo, -ea become e. 

THE TRUE DIPHTHONGS. 
34. The true Dipthongs are ai (ae), ol (oe), ni, du, do, 
éu, éo, t'n. In later MSS. ed and o[appcars as cee, oe, and ae 
and oe are frequently confused, e.g. «tg is also written tes, 
o[s, or des. 
ai represents Id.G. ai, e.g. cdech (calch), Lat. caecus, 
Goth. haihs. 
ol represents (a) Id.G. oi, e.g. ohé, O. Lat. oino, Gk. o5,v ; 
mob, Lat. reveniez, 
(b) arises l)y contraction of o+ e and reduction of oye, 
e.g..fobnat < .fo-emat; totecb < Sto-«essach, W. tywysog. 
(c) by contraction from «tk«i, eg. go[< Sg5«in, con-.o[< 
con.e«d. 
u[ arises from uti, e.g. dru[, < druei(d)s ; 
t. ortis. 
dt (later 6) represents 
(a) Id.G. ou, e.g. dt (6), Lat. a,tris, Gk. o:««, Goth. 
anse, Lith. anse. 
(b) Id.G. 6u, e.g. ddu (later d6), Skr. dz'au, Lat. duo, 
Gk. 8, Id.G. 
(c) arises by contraction, e.g..tdu < «.td_u < SstoEi5 ; ldu 
<Sld-u< ldthu ; also from Z before a lost vowel, e.g. gdu, 
(g6) < 
du (go) arises 
(a) by contraction from e + u, e.g. bdu, béo, 1st sg. subi. 
from 
(b) from eLt (older it), e.g. bdu, bdo (adj.) from 
%itos. 
(c) in syllables containing d long by compensation, e.g. 
B 



18 

Cn < etn(t. It is also used to represent the Latin Io- in 
E useph = Joseph us. 
lu arises by contraction from i + u, e.g..biu < bi(()u < 
b'6 ; b[u (dat. sg. of adj. bdu) < biu. 

VOWELS IN UNACCENTED SYLLAILES. 
35. In original final syllables : 
5 became u, e.g..bht firu, .htr, from bii6, tir6ns, or 
: dr6s. %tes.Sr. 
ê beoeme i, e.g. c«thiç mdt]z5", from *potê3 
buç -the, çerminaçion of 2nd sg. imper, dep. from *-thês. 
ô, before iç drol,ped, beeame 6, e.g. in an Ogham insezp- 
tion ; naqua(t) for *maquon. 
Final vowels disappead, e.g. tir, .bered, ce«r, for 
or tb-ç bh'eto, kar5. Short vowels before consonants 
were also lost, c.g. fer, con, sail for tb'os or tiro»t, 
-*kunos, s«diks. Long vowcls before original final conson- 
ants are tained as shooE vowels, e.g. firu, .bera, tuatha, 
for tb's, %herdt, teutds. Thatfer (gen. plur.) mains 
instead of firu is to be explCned by the hypothesis that 
tb'6m was shortened to drôu befoi'e the case-ending was 
lost. 
After  , or " the vowels of the final syllable are 
retained in a shortened form, e.g. aile, aili, do.gn[u, for 

UNACCENTED VOWELS IN CLOSED SYLLABLES. 
36. When an mmccented vowel, no matter what its 
origin, stood between two consonants belonng to the 
saine syllable it appeared in writing : 
(a) between two palatal consonants as i, e.g. berid 
(bhereti), exceptionally as e, e.g. solrfed. 
(b) between two non-palatal consonants as a, e.g. tegl«ch 
from teg-i.ldg ; as.rubetrt from  as'ru-bert. 
(c) between two u-quality consonants as u, e.g. cumung 
(dat. of cumang) from cut'ctn' g u. 



19 

(d) between a palatal and non-palatal consonant as e, 
e.g. tuirem from to-rim. 
(e) between a non-plntal 
{later ai), e.g. fodil from fo-ddil, rethit (= reth"itq from 
< %'etontL 
(f) between an u-qualify and a palatal eonsonan as i or 
-ut, e.g. eomff or comuil 
(9) beween a palatal and an u-qualiy eonsonan as 
e.g. bnniud da. sg. of imned. 
(h) beween an u-quality and a non-palatal eonsouan 
or vice ver.a, as o or u, e.g. fi9or (' figura '), flechod or 
fleuchud ; dénom or d&mm ; .dgor or .dgm'. 
In open syllab]cs unaeeented vowels were treated 
similarly, but the writing varies eonsiderably. 
SYNGOPATION. 
37. After the vowel of the filml syllable had disappeared, 
ntained more than two syllables, the vowel of the 
 If. trie wordoltained rive or 
more syllablea, the vowel of the fourtll syllable was also lost. 
This change takes place in fixed eompounds as well as in 
simple words and resulted from the position of the accent 
whieh fell primarily on the first syllable and seeondarily on 
the third and fifth, e.g. dligthech, toimseo, .to»mibther, 
for dligethech, tomes.«o, to-monibith ; similarly in 
loan-words, e.g. apstal, epscop, for poslohts, episcol)u& 
The vowcl was retained before cht, e.g. cumaehtach. 
abie .i beeame e, e.g. no.betis for %m.bibtis. When 
a deuteotoni vërbal form 
noepe take place but the toEoclitie D'eposition returns to 
ifs cc£ntedfr deutel-otn. a.:bera  becoes irototon. 
7et = %kbret < «ks-bhero , c .Lat. eïmt < C-ferunt ; 
deuteroton, do.rochab" > prototon..torcha[r < to-ro-cer. 
The absence of syneotion is due to the influence of 
another form, e.g. sochumacht  well as sochmacht owing 
to the form cumachte. When for some reason the second 



20 

syllable remined unsyncopted the vowel of the thrd 
syllable fell out in  woll of four or more syllables, e.g. 
cumachtcle for «cumachtachu. 

I)EVELOPMENT OF NEW VOV(ELS. 
38. When through loss of vowcls in middle or final syl- 
lables a nasal or  liquid came to stand between consonants, 
or in uslaut fter  consonant, it remined its consonantal 
character only (a) when preceded by a similar consonant or 
n, m fter a vowel +r, l, , e.g. do.«r-r-chétdo.««re - 
ro-chet, i««rn < is««rnon, form < upeme, s(dm 
psalmus, naidm < namn- ; (b) when the preceding 
consonant has disappeared e.g. db'me<«ad-r[me (v.  25 ;) 
(c) when the nsals stand before homorganic medie, 
e.g. frecdh'c < s frith-comdo'c-, .fitlgM < deuteroton, 
fo.longid. In all other ces the nsals and liquids be- 
came sonant, nd from these sonants arose new vowels, 
e.g., do»un from do»z < do»tnos ; ecilse, ecoLso, 
from ecse, eco ; arathar from arat]t3"<  aratron (W. 
aradr). 
VOWEL-CONTRACTION. 
39. If two vowels came together in a word which fter 
syncopation had still more than two syllbles, they fre- 
quently coalesced, e.g. ldthoe" as well as loa tltar < s lota tron 
impdd, and bpuud < «i»b-ioud. Also in wekly ccented 
disyllabic words contraction may take place, e.g. d5i5 nd 
doctib, d[b and diib, monosyllabic h as ell as likt ; so 
also 6s for 6 ets, hdlctilht for 6 ahtiliu. 
rOCALISM OF ROCLITIC WORDS. 
40. e in anlaut of proclitic words becomes a, e.g. as-, a for 
accented form e.s(s) < « eks ; aclt < S ektos ; ara for emm 
«eoi : a heur. article for «sen. If the word bas a in the 
first syllable the vowel of the second syllable changes to a, 
e.g. ala from ctile, ara for s ate, la for le. In ocus for 
initial a is chnged to o through the influence of the 
u-quality c. Before et, o, e is often changed to i, e.g. ci 



21 

«.'bera for ce ; l[a = le + a ; o before a frequently becomes 
u, e.gfa-a forfo-a. 
TItE CONSONANTS. 
41. k (C) and ch represent-- 
(a) Id.G. k', q and qU, e.g. cét, W. cant, Lat. 
dei('l, Lat. decem, Goth. ta[hu, Arm. tasn ; sechithS 
Lat. sequi, Gk. Zwe«0«t, Lith. sekh. 
(b) Id.G. t'h, e.g. cbgid, Skr. khajati, O.H.G. 
sc)t, Skr. cby5ti, Lat. sciscere. 
(c) cht also arises from T + t, e.g. "«c]t, t-preterite of 
agid (/og), latt. agere ; from p+t, e.g. secht Lat. 
septem, Gk. 
g (g, C) an(l r (g) represent 
(a) Id.G. g' and g, e.g. gndth, Gk. ,,»rd, Skr. 
teg, Lat. tegere, Gk. 
(b) Id.G. g'h, ffh, and g"l, e.g. ge«lmred, Lat. Mems, 
Gk. e,(&,, Skr. ]i»d : cum-mg, Lat. cmgere, GI« 
Goth. agffvu8, (u/ag'h) ; gti»'id, Lat. form«.% GI« 
t and th represent 
(a) Id.G. t (and Europ. t=Skr, th), e.g. tri, Lat. tres, 
Gk. Cpa, Skr. trayoh; roth, Lat. -»'otc, Lith. rtas, Skr. 
(b) ]d.G. t], e.g. -t]e (termination of 2nd sg. imper. 
Dep.), Skr. -tiédir, Gk. - (). 
(c) Id.G. ],, e.g. art, Lat. ur.«s, Gk. p«¢o, Skr. 2'ksha]. 
(d) t also arises from d+l, e.g. btamil<*bd-,am[1, 
int othi»" <  b«d.. atMr < %bMos 
d (d, t) and f) (d) represent 
(a) Id.G. d, e.g. dau»', Gk. p¢, Skr. ddru; saMid, 
suide, Lat. sede»'e, Gk. ë$oç, Skr. sddah. 
(b) Id.G. d], e.g. de»ait, del, Gk. OvX*, Lat. filius 
<fliw% O.H.G. tila : raid, Skr. ddIu, Gk. 
(c) d (written t) also arises from -t, e.g. dét, cét, and 
Irom t in proclitic words v. . 25. 



(d) î (written d) rel)resets Id.G. z belote g and b- 
with a following d it combines to form dd (written t), e.g. 
Tadc (i.e. T«g), ,»edg, Med. Lat. »e.ga ; odb, Gk. «r:ç ; 
net, O.H.ç. test, Arm. dst. 
p aises from an older b which through syncopation 
cornes to stand before lenited s (=b), c.g. i»»pt«de for 
*imb-.ude; impu for %;mb u. ld.G. p in aulaut and 
betwecn -owcls has disaiq,eared, e.g. atbir, Lat. pater, 
Gk. arp; lethan, Gk. Xa:ç, Lith. platia»; tee, Skr.. 
t@«»t-, lat., t@ere: fo<o<tpo, Gk. ;.=d. s) aud sph 
la aulaut are treated like s2 ; they appear as s, lenited to 
f (pb), e.g. sine, bd trçphne, Lith..ç)e»tys, O.H.G. spmtni ; 
seir, d[ pherid, (spher-), Skr. sThttrt Gk. «6,pd, ; 
selg (spleen.)<%pelg'h5, Gk. «X-@, «wXTx'a ; Id.G. 
lp, top, 1)ecame rr, ll, »trt. e.g. ser»', Lat. sm79o, Gk. 
Lett. siTe; .tellq, .talla, Lith. telph ; camm, Gk. 
Goth. ha»tri', lnitml p in Irish only occurs in loan-words. 
The stages of the rcducrioa of Id.G. p are 1)>ph (i.e. 
p+h)>pf>f>h>ntdl. In the Germanic languages it 
reached the fourth stage, it anlaut, cf. English father. 
b (writtcn b, p) and  (written b) represent-- 
(a) Id.(. b, e.g. ibM, Skr. p[bati; sliab, Eng..clip. 
(b) hl.G. bl, e.g. birt, (¢k. 6p(», Lat.]ero, Skr. bhçtrSmi, 
O.H.G. biru; imbliu, Gk. dgXdç Skr. 
(c) ld.G OE, e.g. béu, bdo, Lat. vivu.% Lith. gyr««.¢, Goth. 
qitts, Arm. kea-; imb (but.ter), Lat. tngtte»t., Skr. aj. 
O.H.G. ¢tncho, Pruss. anktan, Arm. auc- from .x/ 
(d) fl ariscs from .Z after r, l, t, , e.g. tarb < t«trgos ; 
selb, W. helw ; b«t»b, W. bçmw ; ]èdb (i.e. fev) from 
idt : from m + r, e.g. cubu. from ¢com-/X.sus ; cobodltts 
from  com@-ddlu. 
(e) fl (b) sonmtines represents -Z- of the szo-future in 
inlaut after s, always as final, e.g. do'nesbe, "ldciub; cf. 
also tinib 3rd sg. subi. of do.bt@t (i.e. do'in-zet). 
f represents 
(a) in absolute anlaut Id G. 2, e.g. fer, Lat. uit; 
Lat. ttêrlt8. 



(b) arises from lenited s«, e.g. mofit«" (absolute 
tinfed (4/s«êd). 
(c) sometimes is written for b (i.e. ri) in inlaut and 
auslaut, e.g. Bclzefi«th, gv««f (from Lat. gvat'i,). 
n alld y represent-- 
(a) Id.G. n, e.g. ntde, nt«c«e, Skr. nd«yc&, I,ith. 
Arm, nor <*.,tovros ; se,, W. hen, Lat. sertis., Gk. 5'v 
(b) Id.G. final -m, e.g. scdl'<'sketlon. 
(c) original m in compounds ],efore d, e.g. ,'ondelc 
< *co m delc. 
m and  (i.e. nasal u or v), both written m, represent-- 
(a) Id.G. m, e.g. mtli»', Lat. m«tteç Gk. t*ir,p; 
Skr. ddmyat Gk. Sagdç% Lat. doma'e. 
(b) m arises out of another nasal before b (without 
syncopation), c.g. imb (butter), from ir»b, imbitth for 
bi, tth. 
(c) m arises from Keltic b before t, e.g. slemon from 
slibo-, domu, from d,bno-, cf. (aulish Dtb,orex ; rond 
(gen. sg. and nom. pl. of bot) for bn5s. 
w (written n) arises-- 
(et) from Id.G. w only ],cfore Keltic 9, e.g. b,gen, Lat. 
(b) from another nasal before g, e.g. co,gtam for com- 
ffnlm. 
r and  (1)oth written r) represent 
(a) Id.G. % e.g. 'o9id, Lat. 'egere, Gk. dp;y«,; 
Lat. cd',t.% Lett. kd's. 
(b) arises out of 1 by dissimilation, e.g. availe as well as 
«dalle. 
(c) sometimes in unaccented syllables from Id.G. z be- 
fore ff, e.g. dlbb'ci,td from do'bid«i (i.e. do'bigi). 
1 and k (both written 1) represent Id.G. l, e.g. li9EM, Lat. 
lb,gere, Gk. X¢lX¢t', Goth. bi-laig6,; meIM Gk. 
Lat. »oleve, Goth. mala,t. 
S represents Id.G. , e.g. srtth, Skr. srdvati; echte, 
Lat. nix, Goth. snaiws, O. S1. sneg : is Lat. est, Gk. 



"24 

II.--THE ARTICLE. 
42. The article has for its foundation a demonstrative 
%'en to which, except in the nom. and act. sg. neutcr and 
originally probably in the nom. and act. plural, is added 
t.he Id.G. pronominal stem to-, tri-, found in Gk. 
Lat. is-ta, Eng. that. The following is a hypothetical 
paradigm of the Proto-Keltic forms :-- 
Singular. 

In aecordanee with the laws of l,honetic change in 
proclitic words (v. §§ 24, 40.) the abo'e fonns would give 
fise in prehistoric Old h'ish to the following :-- 
Singular. 

In the phu'al the fem. forms ousted the neut. as they 
eventually did the masc. also except the nom. so that the 
paradigm is reduced to-- 
nmsc. fera. and heur. 
N. sindi sbd(s 
G. sindan 
D. sinda,b 
A. 
With the loss of initial s (v. § 24) and the case-endings, 
and the assimilation .nn<d this gives in the Old Irish 
period-- 



25 

Singular. 
mase. fera. neut. 
N. b, bt (bef. vowels)  imt' bt', btt[ 
((bel..) J 
(. btd', b', 5.t (bel..<.) ima v, a v as in masc. 
D. -(s)bd', -(.)b', -(s)-bt (bel. ) as in mase. as in nmse. 
h. i'",-s-bi" b",-sb'" 
Phu'al. 
toast, fera and neut. 
N. bd', in', bt (I)ef..) 
ail genders. 
A. i«t «, (t «, -,(t «. 
43, In thc dual the article has always the form 
In the above paradigm- ', _«,_ ,,, indicate resl,cctively 
aspiration (lenition), gemination, or nasalization of the 
initial consonant of thc followin word. The 
represents thc unroicing of the d of bd produced by a 
following h-sound, i.e.. either of the original ending -os or 
in the lenited anlaut of the succeeding word, thus : nom. 
nasc. sabds atr> Sbd(a).g • atbb'> si»dh 
aHHr ; gen. masc. s sbdi soi > Sbd dtb > 
(i.e. tbt); nom. fera. ssbda soil.e>xind oil.se>b 
soils'e (i.e. oils'e). For aspiration (lenition), nasaliza- 
tion and gemination after the article v.  14a, 1SA, 16A. 
The initial s of the article is retained in the dat. and 
acc. sg. and plur. after prepositions whiçl originally euded 
in a consonant., riz. , co (with), ff'i, i, lav, la, ve, ar, tri ; 
also after co (o) and sometimes after for : e.g.c.,in, asaib 
< Ses. set, Ses eobi ; isin, i.¢a < sit sentu or 
sot sert. sSbtdaib, Ssinda.s (dat. and acc. pl.) are syncopated 
to szaib, s, and after preposigions ending in a vowel the 
initial si- are lost, e.g. do, db, daib, for do, di 
6 s.bdaib. In Old Irish of the 2nd stage (v. Introduction) 
md- is sometimes retained, e.g. bda, du»dmb. The d of 
the article is retained before lenited l, v, m a vowel or 
lenited  e.g. bd lib.uir (gen. masc.), id ie», ind flaith 
(noms. fera.) 



26 

44. The neuter form of the article ch, a" is used as  
relLtive e.g. an a.bhtr= 'what I say,' arrq)redchad <an 
rwpredchad='wht bas been pceached.' Itis Mso used 
with af, co, di, 6 (hua) to form conjunctions, riz. ara", co ' 
(=co + a'), dia", hd", hna'", e.g. arambiat < * a r-an-biat, 
combin con-bin, diambad; used alone before a nasalizing 
rebtive sentence it means 'when,' e.g. an no-n-derbfd 
whell you prove.  

THE ARTICLE V¢ITII DEMONSTRATIVES. 

45. The deictic particle -i, found in Gk. obroe-[, Lat. 
qd=quo+, is compounded with various forms of the 
article to form demonstrative pronouns ; thus masc. nom. 
bt[, gen. ind[ or idh[, feln. nom. 5Ml or bdh[, gen. 
bmah[, heur. nom. ad, coin. gen. pl. immd, &c. Before 
 reltive verb the forms menn 'he, she who, tht which,' 
&c. ; before a proper nanle inti=' the aforementioned,' e.g. 
ht[ 3[oysi, fi»rshm[ Dcmid : note especially the use of the 
neuteL e.g. eod a. mane='tht which is marie," i.e. the 
cO'd « lllII"  

46. The article is used demonstratively in conjunction 
with the particles so(.a) = ' here ', .in = ' there ', tall 
' yonder' (lit. ' on t, he other side '), «cut =' yonder' (lit. ' ai 
tbee'), tua.ç-- 'above'; .o(sa) usually becomes se, seo, sea 
after a word ending in a palatal consonant, e.g. in fer so 
(fer «) ind tir se (tir i) in ]ër tall, & fer ucut, in 
(for the construction cf. the French cet ho»nne-ci, cet 
homme-là). The al,ove demonstrative may be fm'ther 
eml,hasized 1)y the introductmn of the particle 4, e.g. & fer 
[,sitt. (l+so), in fer [.'b,, in fer ithall. 

III.--THE NOUN. 

47. There are three genders of nouns--masculine, femi- 
nine, and neuter; three numbers--singular, dual, and 
plural ; and rive cases--noninative, genitive, dative, accu- 
satire, and vocative. The dual is ouly employed after the 
numeral da (dg). The gen. and dat. sg. of some stems 



27 

were originMly locative or instrmnental, and the dat. pl. of 
all stems is derived from the Id.G. iustrulnental. In cimt 
< 'kt2e»me i or 'ktemm'= 'at the end of,' the old locative 
is retained distinct froln the «bt. cric»m. In ueuter uouns 
the nom. aee. and voe. have the smne form. In the dual 
of ail genders the nom. and aee. are the saine aud the voe. 
is lost. Olfly the mase. -o- stems retain a roc. sg. distinct 
from the nom. sg. ami, with the exeel,tion of nasal stelns, 
the dat. and ace. sg. of fera. nouns have the saine forln. 

48. Fol" purposcs of declension the llOUn8 are divided 
inço two groups, riz- vocalic stcnls and ctm.so»antal stems. 

A.--VOCALIC STEMS. 
1. -o- stclns. Masculine and neutcr. 
Thc Id.G. case-cndings for N.G.D.A.V. of-o-and -o- 

stems are as follows :-- 

Prehistoric Irish case-endings of -o- and o- stems : 

49. Examples of Old Irish declension ; 
law. (As in the partigm of the ariele 
neug. dliged, ' ' 
., denoe aspiration or lmsalization of the sueeeedinp-. 
anlaut.) 



28 

Siug. Dual Plural 
IllaC. lletl, l/lt.c, llell. IllaSc. nellt. 
fll hed' 
N. fer dliged ' er' dhed'* tir' (dleda' 
G. tir' dligid' jër' dlied'* fer'* dliged'* 
D. tire" dligud' feraib * dligedaib" feraib dliçedaib 
( dloed' 
A. fer'* dliged" fer' dl[ged'" firtt ldltoeda' 
V. tir' dlied ' fi»'t hot round 

Nouns whose ffual syl]able bas é by COml)ensatory leng- 
theuiug form their gens. sg. in -duil, -éoil, or [uil : e.g. s«él, 
gen. scéuil or .ceoil ; nél, gên. [uil. Short ê is sometimes 
retained in the gen. sg. side by side with infecting -i; 
e.g. nei«t, eich. In the dat. sg. «e-iufectiou is uot always 
round ; e.g. mcwc, .nalm, corp, bd.« : in such cases the dt. 
does hot differ fl'om the nom. in form. Sometimes the 
disp|nces the root vowel : e.g..on, ball, crann, dtt. sg. 
bull or baull, crunn, : ech makes d«t. eoch, acc. pl. eochu 
(v. § 32); ia.c, fiach, Dia make geu. sg. and nom. pl. 
éi8c, féi«h, Dç but b[ad, dhdl (disyllahic)make gen. 
and dat. sg. biM, bind, diill, diull : demun bas nom. 
1,1. demnae through the influence of Lat. daemonia (Thm'n). 
Some heur. nouus in -ch form phu'als like s-stems, e.g. 
to.sach, nom. ld. to.ge ; cuimrech, dat. pl. cuimrigib. 

"2. -o- stems. 

50. Exam],les: toast, céle, 'coml,amon" ": ueut. orme, 
' hea, rt.' 

In nouns with non-palatal groups of cousouants the dat. 
sg. ends in et iustêd of-la, e.g. daltu, cum«chtq from 
daltae, cmnachtae, and in later MSS. flêir ending-ae is 



29 

frequently written -ct. Dubti occurs a few rimes for 
dui»titt. The following nouns are irregulm': duine, plut'. 
N.A.V. dohd, G. doine, D. dobtib ; h«dide, plut. G. 
Iude, D. h«deib or Itdéib, A.V. h«deu or Indeiu : lctthe 
bas also the shorter forms N.A. sg. lcte, ldct, O. bd, D. ldu, 
hio, /dG ld, N.çLA. pl. icte, id. D. htïb. The o- stems 
had the saine case-endings as the -o- stores |»u$ they are 
distinguished from the latter by the retention of wcakened 
forms of the endings in ail cases of ail llUnfi, ers whereas in 
the -o- stems traces of the endings are found only in the 
A.V. pl. lllaSc, and dat. pl. and dtla| lllttSc, and neut. 
This is due to tbe -f- of the stem : thus K«fros gves fer, 
but I,'eglios> céle ; «dligeti, dligetfi > dligid, dlig«d, 
but  k'ridi,  k'riei6 > cridi, cridiu. 
51. The declension of -o- and 4o- stems varies from the 
original Id.G. iii the fol|owing particulars: the dat. sg. in 
-t e.g. *firu, céliu is probably the Id.G. instrumental case 
in -6; the gen. sg. masc. and neut. in q, common to 
Italic and Keltic, is probably the Id.G. locative; the nom. 
pl. toast, in -i<-oi instead of Id.G. -6s bas, like Gk. 
and Lat., been influenced by the pronominal declension, |,ut 
the genuine nom. pl. is retained as a vocattive, e.g. rime 
from dr6s. The dual N.A. masc. should regularly bave 
given fittr<l'ïrn<ir6 or tdirtd, hue the influence of 
the invariably accompanying dd probably changed the -6 to 
- and preVelltcd it from becoming -n; thus d(t %tir > 
dd fer. The dual N.A. heur. causing nasalization instead 
of aspiration show variation from the Id.G. vocalic ending. 
3. -- and - stems. Feminines. 
52. Id.G. and prehistoric Old Irish case-endin. 



30 

The noun ben 'woman' is declined: N.V. sg. be»t, 
G. nnd < bd, D. mndi < bi, A. mdi < bn«[in ; 
dual N.A. mndi < bnd£ G. bo, Ik mndib < bn.dib ; 
l,lur. N.A.V. mtd < Cbd, G. hem, D. mndib < ¢bndib. 
This is the only noun in which the declension follows the 
original case-eudings of the -d- stems (except in the acc. 
sg.) ; all other nomes of this declension bave been itlfluenced 
by the -h, g- stems. Nouns lu -acht do hot undergo 
palatalization, e.g. d6bcrc]t, G.sg. ddinachtae, D.sg. d6i- 
ncwht, A.sg. ddiaclt '. In verbal nomes the dat. sg. form 
is often used for t.he nom., e.g. g«tbdl or gabdil, both or 
buith, bretl or brith. Some nouns in the sing. alternate 
bctween the -d- and the -n- declensiou, e.g. bendachV 
G.sg. beMachtae or bendadtan ; fortacht, A.sg. fortach, 
t«dn as well as ]ortacht: per.an, G.sg. persine makes 
N.pl. pe'i. 
53. Examples of -d- stems : guide, 'prayer' ; bliadai, 
' year. ' 
Sing. Dual Phtral 
N.V. gtdde' bliada[n' gtddi' bli«M«it gtddi blidttai 
G. guide bli««dnae g.ztide blir«dae  gtdde n bliadn«e  
D. gtddi' blidni' gtddib bl#td»tctib guidib bliadnaib 
A. guidi'bliadnai " gtddi bliadain gtddi bliadnai 
Like gttide re dcclined soil..e, mtgcte ; like bl[«da[n, 
adm G.sg. a[dche, sétig G.sg. séitçhe. Some nouns infiect 
the G.D. and A.sg. like -i- stems, e.g. ini., G. inse, ittseo, 
D.A. it.i nd inis : othcrs follows this declension only in 
the G.sg., e.g. néit, G. mgite, D. mit ; can6in, G. c«n6ne, 
D. cat«Jin. Nouus of the type of bl[adain hd in the N.sg. 
the ending in --; thus Id.G. bh2.g'ht , fera. of bh2"g'hont- 
'exlted' = O.Ir. Brigit (i.e. 'exlted lady') = Skr. b'hatL 
In the N.A. duel they bave the saine form s the N.sg. from 
the influence of the -i- stems. In the N.V. plut. ll nouns of 



31 

this declension ha e adopted the tcrmination of the -i- stems. 
4. -i- stems. All three genders. 
54. Id.G. and prehistorie Old ]rish case-endings : 

Sing. Dual Plural 
m.&f. heur. m.&f. heur. m.&f. neut. 
N. -i.% -is -i, -i -i, -i -i, -i çie.% -i -ia, -e 
G. -i.i-os, -las 
D. -i.i-ai, -e -ibh-, -ibt 
A. -ira, -in -i, -i -ins(-.),-i -la, -e 

Examl,les of -i- stems : mase. ct5im, 'hone'; fera. m[il, 
'eye'; heur. rouir 'sea.' 
Sing. Plural 
nmsc. fen,. heur. masc. fera. neut. 
N.V. otdim .s't'til .rouir 
G. cndmo, -a .«t'do, -a utoro, -a cndmae'* ./dle n tordre n 
D. cndim' s'til' »utb" c»dmaib .«ilib mdrib 
A. cudbn n .t'dl'* "muh"* c»,dmai .st'dli .muh'e 
Dual 
,haSe. fera. neut. 
N.A.V. «,dim .*iil 
G. as sg. as sg. as sg. 
D. as 1,1. as lfl. as pl. 
Deviations from the original Id.G. deelension : 
the N.A. neut. eause nasalization from the analogy of the 
-o- and -n- stems ; the G. in -o (later -a) is borrowed from 
the -u- stems, the G. in -ias being round in Ogham inscrip- 
tions. Nouns like fi'ai, raig make gens. frega, grea; 
bi«il makes its (I-. béla ; loanwords like abbgitir, 
• stOb', poMt, compatit, superlait, digaim show no ending 
in the G.sg. 
.5. -- stems. Masculine and neuter. 
. Id.('-. and prehistol'ie Old Irish ease-ending : 



34 

The -9 of »'*'V lins a-qualit, y iii G.sg., pl. and dual, i-quality 
in D.A.sg. aud N.pl. and dual. 
Like nathir are declined cathi»,, 'city'; the proper 
naine Lugaid, (. Luigdevh (Ogham Lugudecca.*) ; .ail, 
"willow,' G..«ailech: like ab'e, the lwoper naine Aim,b'e, 
G. Abtmivech ; a.ve, 'temlde,' G. arach; later also malae, f. 
eyebrow,' G. malach, pl.D. mailgib: also the following 
nouns ending in -u or -o, the proper names C(tant, G. 
C(u'mach ; Eochu, G. Echach; céu (céo) m. 'nfist,' G. 
ciach ; éu (go), m. 'sahnon' (gu< * e.oh <* es6ks.), G. iach : 
like ,4, but with a short vowel, bri 'hill,' G. breg, D. brig ; 
tml one doomed,'ld.N, troich, G. tvoch, A. t»'ovha. 
Many nouns whose N.sg. ends in -r or -l have been 
attraeted to this deelension; thus Temub" 'Tara,' ail f. 
'rock,' dmo" (later da&) 'oak' have G. Temro, alo, daro, 
hut later also Temvach, ailech, darach; even the --stem 
ia.««l-athir 'Patriarch' bas I).pl. h(tasalathrachaib Wb. 
30 d 1. The noun lie m. 'stone' is a stem in unlenited c 
(i.e. gg), G. liac, 1).A.sg.,N.l,1. liait (later lii«). A.p1. leea. 
Stems in a lenited dental (th, d). 
58. Mase. and fera. only. Examples :" trai9 f. 'foot' fili 
'poet'; tengae f. 'tongue.' (Pr.-Kelt. forms of noms. sg. 

uncertain owing to analogical changes). 
Singu]ar. 



l,ike lrai.l are decliued :-- 

«i, m. 'fault' I}.A. «imM m,d cit, 1).Id. ciutaib, A. citta. 
cig, m. 'wm'rior,' {. ciged, ciugelh. 
mil, m. 'soldier,' G. miled, ]).ll. miledaih. 
al, abb, m. 'ald}ot.' G. al»ad, D.l,l. aplhail». 
si, 'sage,' aud dru[ 'druid,' make {. «aad, druad. 
cré f. "eby' and dd f. 'smoke,' make {. c'iad, diad. 
luth, f. 'mouse" makes G. lochad, l }.A. lot'heM, A.l,l. Io«htla. 
Like fili is declined oii, 6egi m., 'guest,' {L oiged, Ad,l. 
oigetla. 
l,ike te,gae are declined a.«ae m., 'rivfl," 6. ascad, D.II. 
ascadaib :teue m. amlf. 'tire," {I. leed, D. teMd and 
(i.e. teiu) D.pl. tebtib  niae m. 'nephew," G. iad (Ogham 
»iotla<%ootas) (do 'chaml,iou,' . i,)th is probal,ly 
the saine word); in later examples like ld[ue f. 'smock,' 
and seh'le f. "hide,' the old -e aud-[ emliugs are uo louzer 
distiuguishable. To this declcusion helong also abstract. 
nouus in -tt<-tts e.g. oiMu, o[t;u, belhu ; similarly. 
bibd** m. 'guilty lersoh ' coimmdiu m. 'lord," G. bbdad, 
coimmded. 
8ems iu -t (i.e. -dd<-t). mase. and heur. 
9. Examples: ca'ae («karant.s) m. 'fl'ieud': 
(d'e»,l.ç') m. 'tweuty'; ddt (»det < d}t) n. "tooth.' 
h gular. 

N. ca rae fiche dét" 
G. carat fichet dét 
l). caï'ait' flch it' dgit' 
A. cab'ait ' fichit ' dét ' 
Y. carae' 



36 

Dual. 
N.A. carait .fehit dét" 
(4. .ca fa t fich et dét 
I). cairtib, -dib fichtib détaib 

Like earae are deelined ,dmae 'enemy,' b,'&.Iae 'lmCk, 
md Iiada 'lord" with -a in N. : like fiche, abmme 'patience' 
atd d[mt (»dêwnt.) ' ' 
lamb with -u in N.: trieba (pro- 
bably older tri«hae) 'thirty,' coh'a 'fifty,' and secbtmogo 
'seventy,' G. sechtmogat also belong to this dec]ension : 
like dét is dec]incd b;ehet, ldebat 'lightning,' G. lochet. 
The nasalization in sg. N.A. of ueuters is analogica]. 
Stelns in leuited -n. 
60. Masc. and fera. only. 
Exalnples: brithem m. judge ; toimtiu f. meaning - 
ct m.  hound.' 

Singular. 

toim tiu c{( 
toh,te con 
tohMin',-te,-tiu coin" 
toimtin",-tiu coin" 
cri" 

coit 
CO? 
CO)t(l[b 



Like britlzem are decliued nouns in -em and -ara, e.g. 
,s'it«tem m. ' tope,' t«dm n. ' earth ' ; also, with -t-quality 
of the final consonant, e.c«»g f. 'eel,' (. e.cog(tt, the 
proper naine 3lilhtcc, çl. 3lilcot, brdtt (brdo, br6) ' quern,' 
and in -e me»me m. 'mind,' (. menm«t»t; like tobntit 
no[dit m. 'child,' fiadt 'wituess,' Mtmt f. 'Munster' 
ge»itit f. ' genitive ' makes N.pl. genit»e. 
Stems in uulenited -z. 
61. Ail genders. Exanples : gobae n. 'smith '; ]vit f. 
' h'e}and' ; cébn (kingsm») n. ' step.' 

l)ual. 

N.A. gobnbn (cgimm ') 
(. ,.Iobant (rdimmen) 
D (gobannaib) (rdimmenaib) 
Like gobcte but with -t in X.sg. are declined drtt l. 
'iduey,' obltt f. 'conseext.ed host,' aud 1-,roper names as 
Attt, ('tialtt; like Eriu, b'itt f. 'land,' D. [finit or ire; 
brt (&brtts) ï. 'womb'nakes G. brotn, I). broi»tt or 
brt : 'étffltt 'star,' (. vét91ann, dual dt rdt9lainn, D.pl. 
'étffl, mtaib. In fera. nouns the I). form in-eis somet.imes 
used iustead of the N. e.g. ride 'flood' for d[li«. The 
neuters forn their D.sg. in imm instet of bt»t tmder the 
assimilating influence of the preceding -m- (-mm-) : that the 
-mm is confined to the I).sg. is due to Pre-Celtic diflreuces 
of accentuation (Marstrander. Eriu, Vol. V.), thus 



38 

change of -bot toimm is confined to neuter t,oms 1)eeause 
hy far the greater number of stems in -men are neuter. 
The noun ab» n. 'naine ' follows the n-flexion in the pl. 
1,ut varies in the sipg. G. aume, I kA. comimm and aumaim: 
arbor (arbur) n. corn' is m r-sem in N.A. s'., lm in the- 
other cases i is deelined as an n-stem, G. arbae, D. 
arbaimm, cf. lat. jëmur, .femiui.s'. 
62. Nonns of relationship only. Examl,le: atbb" (pagêr) 

Dual 
N.A. ath"ir 
athar 
as in 1,1. 

Like atkir are declined brdthir 'brother' and mdthb" 
' nmther' ; thc -th- bas a-quality ail through the sg., in the 
1,1. i has usually i-,luality lmg sometimes also a-quality as 
in atbra : siur (%tes6»') f. 'sister,' with lenited anlau 
tire" or phiw (i.e.g.cim'), makes G. setkar, I).A. ieir, sier 
(later Mai»'), N.pI. s'etbir, D. (later) setkraib, A. (later) 
setkracha after the analogy of eathracha, dual N.A. as in 
D. sg. 
Neuter s- stores. 
63. Exanll,le : tech (+tegas) 'house.' 
Sing. Plural Dual 
N.A. tecb" (eg") tige tech" 
G. tige (taige) tige ' tige 
D. ,«ig' (tig) igib tigib 
The irregular G.I}. sg. taige, taig beskle tige. tig are 
probahly due to the analogy of uaige, maig. The nasa- 
lization in N.A. sg. and dual is analogieal. 
Like tech are deelined : 
uag 'plain,' G. maige, D. uaig, muig. 
leb ' side,' G. lehe, 1 . leiH,. 
Similarly gle»m 'valley,' G. glimte, D. glinu : .liab 



39 

'mountaiu,' C..léibe, I). sléib; ,em 'heavell,' (. »*ime,. 
D. tim : o ' cgg,' G. tte, I). ti : «'t, (6) ' ear,' G. 
D. oi, de, I). pl. atib : prohably also ' cl't ' faine,' (*'. (later) 
IRRE(ULAR +OUN S. 
64. mi (*mên.q) m. 'month,' G'. I). A. sg., N.G. pl. 
A. pl. »l.o, dua| N.A. mi. bi; (*bords) f. 'cow,' G. bd 
(archaic bot), D.A. bobo, N. pl. btt[, G. b«' (bcto S.(. 22 b 11), 
D. bt«r«ib, A. btl, du. N.A. bc«[ G.D. as pl. (c/in) 'day," G. 
dici, A. dei, dé. Indeclinal)le are t«,fft«, -»'offre, 
foreign names as Le.te, P«'ttricc. 

FORMATI[)N OF AI:STRA('T. AND 1)iMINUTIVE.q. 
A 
65. From adjectives : 
(a) suffix -e<-çi( (cf. Lat. nemor-itt), e.g. d[ct»t 'swift, 
dé»t e 'swi ftn ess' ; fd ilid,-ith 'j oyou s,' fi ilte < * fi ilith-e ' j oy. " 
(b) sux -t«t- (cf. Lat. imtentt«l-, (oth. mikil-dtt],..), 
o.g. beo 'living,' beth« 'lire'; sldt 'healthy,' 
health.' 
(c) sux -tts<-es-t«-, e.g. bi»d 'melodious,' 
melody' ; cos»m«il ' similar,' co.«.milit«s 'similarity.' 
(d) sux -s<ç.td added fo nonosyllahic adjectives in 
-lb, -d, e.g. gn5th 'custonmry,' ffnd. 'custoln'; 9olth 
wise,' 9als ' wisdom ' (-th + s = -.'.' written -..). 
Froln substantives : 
(ci) sux-acht, -echt<-akt«t, -ikta (cf. Lat. 
e.g. d[a, God,' dectcht ' divinity' ; .fli (G. filed) 'poet,' 
filedctcht ' poetry' ; dobti pl. ' inen,' dobtechl and dobctcht 
humalfity.' 
(b) sux -ci.c. -e.ç' <-a..«, e.g. 6clach 'a youth,' 6clachas 
youth ' ; t«»c«mcharae ' confessor,' atnmch«tirtes'. 
(c) sux -b,e, -sine <-inict, -..titia, e.g. ctrae ' fl'iend,' 
cai»'ddi»te ' friendship' ; fiith ' prophet,' fiiths.bte ' pro- 
phecy': ai»tbthi»te<*atboth-bte 'storn' il collective sense. 



4O 

(d) suflix -red, -rad< 4/reth- ' to run,' as collective, e.g. 
aig 'ice,' aigred; luaitb 'ashes,' luaitbred', gaim-red 
winter-time,' sain-md 'summer-time '; as abstract, e.g. 
»reclt 'variegated,' »recltred; carne, caratrad. This 
suffix probably sl,read by analogy from words like ind-red 
invasion,' ech-rad ' stud of horses,' in which it had etylnO- 
logical significance. 
(e) suflix -M, -tM, d, in nons of agency, e.g. d[gal 'ven- 
geaace,' d[glaid avenger ; élned 'defiling,' élnitMd 
defiler'; thc -tbid thus arising from -d (-5)+-id is also 
used as a suflix, e.g. J'oghdmnt 'learning,' jbglimthid 
learner.' 
.ludnent, brit]em 3udge' ; 
(.f), suttix-em, e.g. b,.eth ..... 
dgtil ereation,' ddilem creator.' 
(g) the l,at. sutSx -drht.s which appears in early loan- 
words as -ire and in later as 6if, e.g. notire (notariées), 
laitndir (1,tinarins), is eml,loyed t.o form nouns of ageney 
from natire words: e.g. te«ht 'going,' tecbtaire 'mes- 
senger'; jbclell 'eare,' foi«hleoir 'eurator': the sufiix 
-tdir, -atdir is also used after the analogy of loan-words 
(e.g. wecept6ir, .enatdir); e.g. lnb-gort 'garden,' lubgar- 
tdir ' gardener.' 

])IM1NUTIVES. 

(a) suflix cb,<-akno (ogham -agno in Corbagni,, &e.), 
e.g. feî" ' nmn'.ferc'tn. ; dltble, ddndn : also -ca)çin I.ucdn 
(b) sufix-én<-ikno, and-ée: e.g. duinén; claideb 
' sword,' claMbéne ; ldir ' mare,' ldiréne. 
(c) sut5x-at<-t:sim" 'sister,' s'i, tr-wat', t[r 'land,' 
tb'-th-at ' little fie|d '  ceint ' head," cen-t-at ' capitulmn.' 

SE OF TIIE CASES. 
66. The genitive is used : 
(a) adjeetivally ; 1,ossessi e, e.g. (onmi chie ' we are 
God's': qualitative, e.g. ' "redite 'it is of importance'; 



41 

objective, e.g. serc dé ' love towards (;od' : G. of respect, 
e..amS precepte ' fearless as regards l,reaching.' 
(b) adverbially : of rime, céne ' so loug as ' (X. c[«n ' 
long rime ') ; (h)5re ' hecause ' (N. iar ' hom'.') 
The dative is used : 
(a) after the preps, a, co ', d/, do, .f/ad, /cor, [s, 5 ; oc. 
'e and after af, .fo, .fo-»', i, which take the A. also. 
\Vithout a l,rel)osition. 
(b) as il,strumental : c.g. lin cbrtlb o 'in this mauner,' 
b«araib 'at rimes,' .cn-me.«.ib 'accor(liu" to old standards,' 
léir b9mt 'with diligent science'; iii al,position, 
tb-oem«r ' thou aloim' (lit. ' thou in thy one-man '), 
tritss 'he as third,' (for adverldal use v. § 
(c) as aldative: after comparatives, e.g. lift dii. no 
tbrim" ' more than two or three 1,ersons.' 
(d) as locative: .s.it 'here,' chm 'at the end of': of 
rime. indiu ' to-day,' ind-e«bt-.o ' this rime' : possihly also 
in the stereotyl,ed phrases .fri«.«tiret]ar «dill 'cultivates,' 
ar.beir bitlh "l,artakes of,' ar.mtinethar fJid " honours.' 
The accusative is used : 
(a) after tlle 1,rel,s. cen, ce»tmithS, «o ('to'), echtar, 
sechtar, etnr..fri, ira, le, s.ecb, tar, tri, ald after or, fo, 
'br, i, which also take the dative. 
Without a l,reposition. 
(b) as ol,ject to a verb: also after vcrbs of motiou as 
indicatiug the goal, e.g. tiavait b5a.'they go fo death,' 
a mb«. t&,.lme-»ti ' the death to which we 
(c) to deuote duratiou or time wheu: e.g. tri fichtea 
bl&d»e ' foi" 60 years,' allae .i»t ' ou that day.' 
(d) afterttmal hke, ' " " ' 
 ' " ' e.g. amal «hland(t hke chd(h'en ; 
after the adjs. atlas and t'talanff (xvhich also takes the G.), 
e.g. bid ada. .f(tr mbSi«b ' it will be proportionate to your 
fighting,' ttalan(j forcital ' C,l,able of teaching.' 
The vocative is always l,receded by the particle a  



42 

IV.--THE ADJECTIVE. 

Practically ail adjectives have vocalic stelns, on|y a fe 
traces rcmaining of the COlSOlmnta| stenls; they are 
accordingly reduced to rive classes--I, o-5-st.ems, II. io-'5- 
stems, III. i-stelns, IV. u-stems, V. consonantal stems 
(Th lll'll. ). 

FORMATION OF AD.IECT[VE. 
67. New adjeetives are fornled in four ways : 
1. From the present or pretcrite stem by lnealS of the 
suffix %tio-, -tfl-t>-the (-te, -de,-.s) of transitive vcrbs 
(passive participlc), e.g. mortbcte, ob'dnide, clnisse. 
2. by suflix-less composition ; adj. + adj., e.g. dub-ht..s' ; 
adj. +1101111, c.g. »,;r-che»m ; l»OUll + adj., e.g. folt-b,tide ; 
particle or prep. + l»Olll, e.g. so-nirt, deithbir<de-(dthber; 
1101111 + 1101111, e.g. 
3. 1,y meal)S of the suflix -de (-d%)--(od-stenls), e.g. 
emdae, bé.t«te, tu, trie (fol'-t"e v.  17). 
4. by meal»s of the suffix -cwh, -ech--(o-5-stems), e.g. 
ben-ctcb, «retmech<%retem-ecb---eçb bccause a palatal 
COliS. ] wecedes. 
N.B.--hl the case of 2, when thc fil'st part is au inde- 
clinable particle, o- «lld (- StelnS pass over to the i- flexion, 
e.g..qo+ceuq=so-cbeȎdl: in the case of 3 the auslaut 
of the steln reappears before -rie, e.g. c{t---codcte, ab'e-- 
airechdae, airegde. 

68. 

l. o- 5- stems. 
Siugulav. 
nmse. fera. neut. 
N. becc bec« becc ' 
G. bb'«', be&c" bee b&c', be&d 
D. biwc" bi«e bi«cc' 
A. beçc ' b&c becc'" 
V. bloc', beh'e' becc b&c', beœeec 



43 

Plur,tl. 
N. bicc', beicc' be«cn becca 
G. becc" be«c" bec«" 
D. beccaib beccaib be«caib 
A. biccu, bec«'a be«cn becca 

As in the deelension of the article the neut. pl. forms 
are lmt. distinguished from the fera. bug the shorter i.e. the 
true heur. form oecurs where the adj. is used suhstantivally, 
e.g. ima o1« 'the evils.' In A.V. 1,1. when used substanti- 
vally the ending" -« is employed. In the I t. sg. m. n. 
infection is sometimes lackin as in the case of nouns (v. 
 49). d[aat 'swift' makes (. m. n. débt, f. ddaw, I. m. n. 
d[am f. débt ; olc 'had,' G. m. t«H«, 1. t/«, A. 1,1. t«lct« : 
&&«, &éo ' living,' G.V.m. b& D. bh«, N. pl. m. b& A. b[t« ; 
bocltt 'poor' makes G. sg. boh'ltt although the group chi 
is non-palatal, l}issyllabic adjectives like [.s'el and t,a.al 
are inflceted in the pl. like i- stems when hot. used sub- 
stantivally, e.g.N.A, pl. t«ai..li, but (h) m«.«il (subst.). 

2. io- !"e- stems. 
69. Examples: amrae wonderful, tile ail.' 

In pl. m. f. n. N.A.V. amrai tili; G. amrae", 
D. amraib, ,iii& In the A.V. pl. m. when used substan- 
t.ivally the ending is -u : there is no speeially subst, form in 
1X'.A.V. pl. n. : aile 'other' and alaile 'another' make 
N.A. sg. n. aill and alaill, do'clme is fouud as pl. of 
dorclme ' dark' ; clé ' left " makes D. sg. m. 



44 

3. i- St.crus. 
70. Example : maith 'good.' 

Phlr«d m. f. n. N.A.V. uaitbi, G. maithe ' and maith ', 
D. maithib. Trisylhd@ adjêetives undergo syneopafion, 
e.g. N'.sg. .ainem(til, G.f. s.abemlcte, N. 1,1. s.ahtemlai, 
D. »ai»emlaib : fmlmnab "deep" makes N.A. 1,1. fitdumne 
used substantivally as against adjeetival fitdumuaL The 
longer form of the ;. 1,1. is only used suhstantivally. 

4. u- stems. 
71. Eamplês :dub ' blaek,'.tbllus ' elear.' 
Singflar. 

PlurM N.A. dubai, .lbil.s'i : D. dubaib, fiilsib : other 
cases hot round. These adjeetives follow the truc deelen- 
sion of t- stems only in the N. sg. of ail gendêrs and in the 
D.A. sg. m. n., the V. is uot fomld. In the ll. s. they 
follow the deelcnsion of the o- & stems and in the 1,1. that 
of the i- stems. 

5. Cosonantal Stems. 
72. The only certain examl)le is tee, té<:*tepeuts 'hot 
an old t- stem which make N. pl. f. teït<*tepete.ç. 



4.5 

CO3[PARISON OF AI).IECTIVE.';. 
73. The adjeètive has three forln. of "Oml,ariso riz.. 
'ceemparatïï'ë nd ««l The equa.tive is 
orme«,y ]ueans of the sutE'" -iH,'r, -idir_(it,') : rb as 
ae chang:es to  hlted hy two or more weakly- 
acccnted syllahlcs from the syllahle which hears the l,rin- 
cipal stress, accordingly -idir is the forn of the sux usual 
in adjectives of more thau one syllal,le, c.z. di««» 'swift,' 
dddthir 'as swif ' ; soirb ' easy,' .oirbithir ' as easy' ; 
bu s.uthab ' lasting," suth,inidi« ; s,m,ir ' srong,' 
sonartaidir; mdr, m6r 'greaL nmkes e.q. moir; il 
' mmy,' e.q. lit ; lctbnn ' hroad,' c.q. h'thMir. 
N.B. Thc equativc is followed hy the A of thc nouu, 
e.g. so»arlahlir sldbe (A. 1,1.) 'as stroug as nlountains.' 

74. The com_arati.vç is farmed by addiue" to_he ositve 
the sux -u : since tllis -« repl'esents earlier *-is<*i6s. it 
causes, where possilde, palatdization of the final consouant 
of the adj. e.g. tl[,», ddniu: sctt 'old," sbdu: with 
syucopation, dli»M ' beautiful.' dildiu  *dilndiu : fiiilid 
'joyous,' fiiilliu: but ord 'hi'll.' ardu ; lromm 'heavy.' 
trummu ; c«machlctch 'powerful,' cumachtchu : for the 
del,alatalization in doich, docht«, c,;bç cdru, &c., v.  22: 
llet the positive ends in a owel the vowel disal,l,ears 
belote the sux, e.g. t,«»e, ass.c, comps, tanu, a.mt. The 
final consonant of the positive frequeutly retaius its non- 
palatal quality in the eOnll,aratve also, e.g. irlam 'ready,' 
b'lamu : rid 'just,'flridm«. 

75. The_supel;lative is formed by addinç the suflix 
-em<oe-isamo=: cf. La...-issimus or, after cousonalits 
whiell do no adnlit, palatalization,-ara: e.g. soirb'easy,' 
soirbem ; follu. ' clcar,' faill.em ; but ct.s.e ' diflicult,' 
aïts.«o»t : in the MI. glosses his sufïfix appears doubled, e.g. 
somme 'rich,' «ommaimem : lïrid, firid»amam : uasal, 
itaiMimem. 



46 

76. Pos. 
il ' many' 
lethan ' broad ' 
m«b', mSr great 

5ae ' ymmg' 
.'[r ' long ' 
lrén ' strong ' 

Irregular Coml,arison. 
Comp. Snperl. 
l& hot found 
letha hot found 
m6 (m6o), md (mdo) mda,n (mdm) 
With comparative and SUl,erlative formed ff'oto other 
roots tlmn the positive. 
becc ' little' lugu (la/g/u, lmtg,t) l-ugam (lugimem) 
maith 'good' ferr de«h (deg) 
olc ' bad ' me..qa hot round 

77. Comparatives and sul,erlatives are indcclinable. 
When the pronom, adj. or an indefinite noun follows a 
eoml,arative it. takes the dative case, e.g. diliu alailin 
'dearer than another," mai.it maenib ' more lovely than 
riches'; the more usual construction is with ol" (in MI. 
also in)+ the subst, verb .tdu (-16), e.g..o('h'udiu old6-sa 
"more beautiful than I (ara),' Jbr" oldSi ' better than thou 
(art),' Miu oldate angil 'lower than (are) the angels.' 
' The more' is expressed hy means of de ' of it,' e.g. ferr de 
'the better of it,' digthMiu de 'the more tobe feared.' 
'and ' in sueh exl,ressions as 'greater and greater' is reu- 
dered by as.sa whieh eaused gemination, e.g. m6o a..a m6o, 
• me.s.s«t (ts,'«tm»t#,.u(t ' WOl'Se and worse.' 
ADVERS. 
78. Adverbs are formed by using the D. sg. m. or n. of 
the adj. with the article, e.g. in bhtcc ' little,' 5 mat (m6r) 
'grcatly,' bt deurb 'surely': adjectives in -de and parti- 
ciples in -the bave adverl)ial forms in :M, -ith instead of the 
dat. e.g. oindae 'single,' ind obMaid 'singly,' bdstae 
'mortal,' in bdstaid 'mortally': the later method of 
forming adverbs by prefixing cO n is rarely employed, e.g. 
comm6»', commenic, commaith (this gemination after co  



47 

instead of nasalization is ln'Obably almlogical). Com- 
paratives and superltives are used dverbially hy means 
of the D. sg. of the article, e.g. int serbu 'more bitterly,' 
ind lugu 'less,' in maam mostly. Some adjectives are 
used a.dvcrbial]y prefixed to verbs, e.g. ca[n..te»radar 
may he guard-well,' mtrd.génatar 'haply are they' (lit. 
'well-horn were t.hey,' mad.bocht 'it was well-reaped'; 
moch 'early'in the form mos, mw¢ is so used to express 
'soon,' e.g. mos.riccub 'I shall soon-come,' mos.reg«te 
' thou wilt soon-go.' 

79. 
1 obr-, den- 30 
2 ddu (d6) 40 
3 tri 
4 cethir 50 
5 cdic' 60 
6 sé « 70 
7 secht ' 80 
 ocht ' 90 
9 oi ' 100 
10 deich ' 1000 

V.--THE NUMERALS. 
(,ardmal. 

tricha, G. trichat 
cethorcha, G. cethorchat, 
N. pl. cethorchuit 
co[ca, G. coicat (cdecat) 
se.,'c«, G. se.c,t 
sechtmogo, G. sechtmogat 
ochtmoga, G. ochtmugat 
rdcha, G. rdchat 
cét, G. c(it 
»1 ile 

20 fiche, G. fichet 2000 dl m[li (dual) 
oin- (de»t-) as adj. only OCCtlrs in compounds ; it is some- 
times Iound inflected and then follows the declension of adjs. 
of o-d-stems, e.g. inna oetrméite (G.sg.f.) 'of the saine 
size': the form ddu (dd) is only used when no subst. 
follows as in counting, and when the numerals are so used 
they are preceded by a geminating l)articlc a, e.g. a ddu, 
a tri, a ocht (pron. a hocht and so written in Mid. and 
Mod. I.); its composition form is dé, e.g. de-.illabach 
' dissyllabic' ; the form used before suhsts, is dd, f. d[, and 
is declined as follows :-- 
N.A. dd' di' dd ' 
G. dd' dd' dd ' 
dib ' (deib'q 



4 

trl bas as COml,osition form tré (tri, tre), cethir bas 
ceth«»" and cethr- ; tf[ and cethir are declined thus : 
IllaSC. fellli heur. 
N tri cethir teoir, teora celheoir, celheora tri' cethir" 
G. tri" (cethrd ) leora" celheora ' tri"(cethre ' 
D. trib ( ceth »lb) teoraib cetheora ib trib ( cethrib ) 
A. tri cethri teora cetheora tri' cethir" 
c6ic and sg cause nasalization in the G., oclt nasalizes 
after the «malogy of secht; cét is declined like a neut. 
o- stem (v.  49), mlle f. like guide, (- store), fiche, 
tricbae &c. are dett:d stores. The numerals 1119 are 
built up by addiug dëac to 6en, dSu, tri, &c., e.g. a tri deac : 
when used with a noun the noun fs placed between the t«vo 
numerals, e.g. tri mis deacc ' thirteen months,' coic sailm 
sechlmogat '75 Psahns': after 20 the numerals are con- 
nected by the 1,rep. ar (foll. by ]k), e.g. oen af fichit ' 21,' 
ficle ar cher ' 120,' note also b6 af hit ' 21 cows.' 

7th 8echtmad lOOth cétmad 
cét<-'»l,'entt (cf. Gaulish cbttugnatus 'first-born," W. 
cynt), while cét 'a hundred'<kanton, is only used in 
compou.uds, e.g. in cét-fer; cgtnae (.- stem) is used 
adjecti,'ally, e.g. cétnae fer; whên it follows the noun it 
means saine,' e.g. in. fer cétnae 'the saine man ' : 6enmad 
is used inste«rd of cdtnae before the tens, e.g. 6enmad af 
déc, ar ficlit'llth, 21st.,' ind 6enmad rann ficlet 'the 
21st part.' As a verbal l,refix it trkes the form cetu (cela, 
cita) e.g. cetu--ru-pridach 'bas first-pre,nched,' cela-déni 
'does first,' ad.cita.acae 'saw first.' tdn.ai.e follows its 
noun, ala (aile) precedesç before the nom, with or 
without the art. aile beeomes ala aud remains uninfleeted : 



49 

the ermination -mctd is a coml»ouud of the endings -amo + 
-eto ; he ending -amo- was origiually confined to .eehtmad 
and decbmad (cf. Lat. «eptumu.., decumu.) and afterwards 
Spl'ead through analogy : c6ieed has the ending -eto- alone, 
• «issed the saine euding flu'ough aualogy. Some of the 
Lat. ordimfls were also borrowed, e.g. l»'[m-ab.t«tl, sec»td- 
cil, b, and in grammatical phraseology tert-cobeda», 'third 
declenson. 
Cljugtiol,' q«a»'t-dtll ' fourth " ' 
'I'31EAI I'BSTANTIVES. 
81. k«thcul 'oue thiug,' d&le, trdde, ceth««vdae, .édc, 
• «Cht«te, '2, :g, &c. things'; the forms for 5, 8, 9, 10 do 
hot oecur (later «5i,'dc, dcb'bde). For pcrsous are used the 
following forms whi«.h, with the exceptiou of db., are the 
c«r(linals compounded with Jet 'man': obav, (,iomr), G. 
,»Smir, D. o[»ntv ; d?«s f. G. dess.e, D. dS, cHi.c, (d[.), I). pl. 
desMb : trias': cethrav ; c6icer : se..er : mor;fe.er (lit. 
gre«t-sx ) : ocht««r : n6nbor ; dei,'he»&or. 
82..! =leth (n. -o- stem), G. leith, also used in com- 
pouuds; =t»'i?t» u. 1). trit»; -=celhr««mthu f. (. 
cetbr««mthan ; from  onwards the ordimds are employed 
either alonc or with r««n poErt," e.g. coced=,  .ecbtm««d 
ron» = ;. Multiplicatives arc formed by the prep. Jo with 
the A. e.g. jb dl 'twice,' Jb thr[, 2b deich, 2b o«ht ficher 
'twelty-eight times.' 5e»z/e«ht is used for 'once.' I)istri- 
butives are formed by prefixing cach, e.g. cach o[» 'each 
one,' cach dd, cnch c6i«'ev Ac. c«wh-lo<cach«dc« "every 
other, 'every second,' e.g. c««ch-la .el 'alteruately.' 

VI.--TH F. PRONOUNS. 
83. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
Sing. Plut. 
I ,,,é (messe, me.ve) we sni (sis,i, 
thou tï (tusu', tumt) sinni, 
he d (bd, d soin (simn)) ye si (sib, sis.ci, 
she .ï (sisM) 
it ed' (hed, ed 6n) they (, neut. é 
d 



5O 

The N. of the 1st. pers. corresponding to Lat. «go, (,k. 
• i,/,,;, Skr. «dtdm is lost, rué being an oblique case (cf. Lat. 
ne, (Ik. èlé, Skr. m). The longer forms (those in paren- 
theses) are êmphatic; they are produced either by the 
addition of a demonstratire particle .e, ..c«, so»,, ..6n or by 
reduplication of the pronoun itself as in the 3rd f. and 1st 
and 2nd pl. The . of .M may be borrowed from the 
original verbal ending of the 1st pl. %mo., thus --»io.-i[- 
--mo-s»l, or may haro arisên from the -« of the 3rd sg. of 
the copula used with it, e.g. ¢is n.i-i. cM: si 'ye' cornes 
from -.ui (W. «liwi) and thc reduplicated form sib (i.e. 
• ifl) < if< "xs»fi-.4y (cf. XV. ch wyc]ilci) : the persons of the 
rerb are emphasized sinlilarly, e.g. 1st sg. «tsbiur sa, 2nd 
sg. a..bir siu, 1st pl. a.beram ni, 2nd pl. a«berid si. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 
84. Sing. 1st pers. »lo' (-mu') ; 2nd do' (du') : 3rd in. and 
a', f, a : ; lhn ". 1st ar" ; 2nd far ' (for"}, after a prep. 
ending in a vowel or -r also bar ' (i.e. flav") ; 3rd a' for ail 
genders, mo cornes from an apoeopated (I. nen<-»lne»w 
(er. O.V. »iyn) but aspirates after the analogy of do; a' 
eomes from a form with voealie auslaut -e.si.o, a « <-e.a., 
a<e.sian ; ar  and fc«r', b(w  probably <.sara and 
:».%««r«m old C-s. pl. 

ACCENTED 1 ORSI .'.;. 
Sm. 1st mu mme, emphatic mids..e, with art. imi««m- 
md sea (pl. n.) cf. French les »iens; 2nd -tu[ (Mid. I. 
lai) : 311 sg. and pl. ai (ae), e.g. a i-cti ' its' (art. + n. sg.), 
cecltctr .l,-at 'each of thêm'; pl. Ist ,ctthaï" (n«r) in thc 
phrase cecbtctr nat]iar (n«r) ' each of us two' ; 2nd s'etllar 
(.,dr). 
After preps, which end in a vowel and after for the 
proclitic forms mv, do become -m, -t, e.g. dom, lat, fort; 
before a vocalic anlaut or before lenited f t.hey may become 
m-, t-, e.g. »io ort or m'off 'my diguity,' m'oL.itiu (foh 
sitiu) 'my confession,' t«lr .mo du'mi or t«lrm cllenn (lit. 
' over my hêad ') ' on my accourir.' 



INFIXED PRONOUNS. 
85. The 1,ersonal 1,ronouns are termed " infixed "' when 
they are elosely attaehed to the verbal fovms 1,y me«tns of 
certain 1,roelitic pavticles. This method of incorl,orating 
l«'ononns is hot l,eeuliar to Celtic but is common to snch 
widely separated langnages as asque, Zuhl, and the 
aneient Accatlian; cf. also the transition stage in French 
i,ndi (spoken for il me dit). The infixed 1,ronom is 
usually in the ace. case, i.e. :ts ol,jeet of a transitive verb 
whether active or deponent in fovm ; but with passive foans 
the 1,tons. of the lsL and 2nd pers. are used to exlwess t.he 
sul_,iect, and with the verb 'to be' the t,ron, is usnally in 
the dative. Wht, n the infixing" partiele ends or oviginally 
ended in a vowel the pvons. «tppear in reduecd fowns; after 
those which end or origin«dly ended in a consonant, and in 
relative sentences, longer forms are retaiued. In relative 
s,mtences there is a special form for the 3rd sg. m. and n. 
Shot'ter frms. Longer forms. 
g 1 -re(m)-' Sg. " I-clora-(»)-' (-dura-) 
• 2 -t-' "2 -dot-" (-dot-') 
• 2 -b- (f) "2 -dvb-, -d«tb- (-dib-) 
Eaml,les o he shorter orms : ff-m-eho'ot ' they love 
me hot': to-t-beb" (i.e. to-t-efi) 'it brings thee' ; 'alléie 
< ro-an-lei« 'he has left him,' '-an-uc < .'o-oz-tte ' he has 
hrough him," n[-n-«dthg&ti "he did no recognize him ' : 
du-sn-odbot " he shows her,' du-s-yt[<«lu-sn-yt[ ' he 
makes her " ; '-a-ehualato'<'o-a-chmd«tto" ' they havë 
heard it,' ater ni the -a- disat,l,ears luit the aspiration 
remains, e.g. ff-thabo'<f-a-thbur 'I do hot give it' ; 
ro-n-*oh" ' he has saved us' ; ,'o-b-cctv ' he has loved you ' : 
the 3rd pl. or ail genders has the saine forms as the 3rd 
s,.. f. e.g. ,to-sn-gm'd 'he i,rays them,' fo-s-didmot 'they 
will str then' 



52 

Examplcs of thc loger foc'ms: the final consona.t of 
fi'i(th), co» (c»), (d, oith. &c. unites with the initial d- 
to l,roduce -t- (v.  17), f»itsmm,»'cat  f».ith-domm-orc.t 
'they ofli.nd me,' »n-dm-(.h'och«« ' who crcifies me,' 
dom-5é»'«t (i.e. /3é'a) 'which will hring me'; ottot«ig< 
(«d-dot-aig 'which iml»cls thec'; n,o-da-p'Mch« (i.e. 
bvMeha) ' who l,rcaches it (lit. ' him '),' tu-dn-e'b««i ' who 
entrusts himself,' rcl. ,d-idn-«»p««;»" 'who sacrifices him- 
self,' fl«mtd»'og«b < *fo-««»t-d-'o-gob ' in which he hs 
uttercd it (lit. ' him ') ' ; ««ta»'imet<*ad-da-r[met 'they 
cotmt hcr' : atbei" (i.e. /3«i»') <*««s-dbei" ' he says it,' rel 
cm«d c«.sindhim'<*««s-i(t)d-bim • (b = ff) ' as I say it,' here 
thc t of the naslizing relative-clause is inscl'tCd before the 
d of -t'd- ; .f»'-don-ç«5t ' ho teaches us,' to-don-te'ta ' who 
strcngthens us ' : fo».-dob-mot'tet««v ' they envy you,' h6'e 
nom-dob m«»lo»" ('el. n },efore -dob-) 'because I praise you 
««ta««tmlihhl <*a«l-da-.s«nliid ' ye will imitate them,' 
da-se(«'« "vho sep«u'ates them,' with gemiuation 
mmo[dct "in which they l)oast thcmselves'; the excep- 
tional asl,imtio, ;fter -da - in n«,-da-c/el(«t, m-da-«hd'lti 
(Ml.) is xplaiued l»y Thurueyseu s arising from forms 
without infixed l»'ons, e.g. tte('heiltis. Aftcr the negative 
(«('h the forms appear as sg. l.-ira-,-ara-, ; 2.-it-,-at-, 
: m. -n- or mCXl»ressed f. -(«- n. -id-' or merely aspiration : 
pl. I -it-, -««t- ; 2 -t'b-, -ab- : : -ce- : e.g. 
' does hot console me,' tc«ch-im-;idmT)««i ' tht he has hot 
cast me away'; taeh-it-vStd««ithev ' that thou be mt cast 
«way,' nc««]t-st-toseélfit 'that they will hot experience 
thee'; «ot-tac]t-n-itgéuic 'so that he did hot recognize 
him, uuexpresscd e«m-n«ch-moideo ' that he )oast hot him- 
self'; ('«m-tc«c]t-s-d«bmig.fe(« 'so that he will hot bestow 
it (lit. ' ber ') ; n«('h-id-cht«d«tat" ' who bave uot herd 
with aspiration only nach-beiv (i.c. flei') 'who does hot 
1)rig it'; na«h-in-roffba 'that it seize us hot." 
soie'cci 'that thou dost ot delivcr us'; nach-ib-e'pid'do 
hot eutrust yourselves'; a'-nach--mo[det 'that they 
boast not themselves.' In W1). the forms 
are round, in Ml. thosc in -a», -al, 
Exml»les of thc dative vith the verh 'to he'- 



d-m-tld ' I have hot' (lit. ' there is not to me'), ro-t-bia 
thou shalt bave' (lit. 'there shall be to thee'), 
' we have hot,' o-b-td 'you have'; but (accusativc) 
' I ara hot,' »H-n:fil 'we are hot,' ti-s! 'thcy are hot' (v. 
suhstantive verb). 
Eamples of 1st and 2nd pers. as sul4]ect with passive 
f«n'ms : o-m-gl(cntar ' I ara cleaned,' to-n-lbta»" ' we are 
filled,' ro-b-h[c(td 'ye bave been saved.' Wheu no conjunct 
l,article or prel,osition l,recedcs the verb the particle 
is enlploycd to iufix the I)l'onO(lllS. The infixcd I,ron. is 
frequently used prolel,tically, c.g. d--gdtt-.«t si» ' I do that' 
(lit. 'I do it that'), dtt-ds-jbrs«tl itt»ta dli 'who has created 
the elements' (lit. 'created lbe,»t riz. the elcments') : the 
ncut. pron. may refer to a noun of another gcnder, e.g. 
r-s:fitir crctim 'ho lcnows it riz. thc fiHth (f.)'; it is con- 
stantly infixed in the verb «tt.bnil<ml-db«dl'hc dies' 
and usually in .Ibrt'gillim 'I guarautee," 
l,erishes,' and imms-(ticic "hc suits'; wheu infixed in 
ro.gab 'he has taken' in nasalizing relative Seltences it 
changes the meaniug of this form to ' he is,' ro»d-g«tb. In 
the verbs fo.]èra and resta (do.e.'-t«t) it has the force of a 
neut. rel. pron. e.g. M.era<fo-d:I'r«t 'whieh causes,' 
do-d-esta 'which is lacking." After chi 'although' and 
ma 'if' with their negatives cei, ,mtm -d-' is infixed 
l»efore verbal forms in the indicative which bave no iufixed 
pronoun, .g. «[a d,d.«'hommttr "although we went.,' 
ceni-d-felar-.a 'although I (h hot know,' met dwd-rigdtt.s" 
'if I have done,' »ttttti-d chretid 'if yc do hot belie e.' 

. AFFIXED )RONOUN,'q AFTER THE ('OI'I'LA. 
These are added to the 3rd sg. of the copula, e.g. i«.-um 
t:«en 'it is nccessary for me,' i«-a(t) dilm«dt, d-b éce}t, 
i«s-id n-ait/t reçh. 

7. SUFFIXE ['RONOt'N. 
After verbal forms : 
Suflixed l«'OnOUnS are found after the :h'd sg. and 1st and 
3rd 1,1. of simple active verl,s : the forms arc-- 



5 

do ' to' 
dom, data 
dtit: (lait 
deit, dit 

f[ad 'ilt i,l'esence o[': sg. 1 fi'adam, 
jïadaib. 

{ad, gtaid 
adi 
/taib 
[aidib (ddib) 

pl. 2 jïadib, 3 fiadib, 



55 

Prepositions with acc«sative. 

89. fi'i ' against' la ' with' tri, t«e ' through' 
Sg. 1 ri'Jure,,,, frira le,,,(,,,), lira(m) tri, o,, 
lium(m) 
2 frit, frhd lat triat 
: m. n. fris'(») leis.s, le.(.), lai. triit, triit 
f. fi'ie lee, laee, 1,b tree, trée 
Pl. l ri'bru, fi'i» li»m, lem trim (-ni) 
2 frib lib triib 
3 ri'lu leu, lé,, leo trett, tréu, lreo 

Sg. 1 
2 
.q 

lethu (BI« of Arm.) 

Pl. 1 
3 

samlom, 2 (sa»dut), 3 m. 11. samlid, 
• S.amlilh, samhtid, l,I. 3 s.amlaib 
cen without': sg. "2 cemff, 3 ni.. n. cene, cetae, pl. 2 
cemdb, 3 cemib 
sech 'past': sg. 1 (.sechum), 2 (.echuO, 3 m. n..echae 
f. (.ecce), Id. 3 .eccu 
tar, dar'over': sg. 2 torut, 3 m. n. tarai.,., f. (tair.,.e), 
1,1. 1 torture, 3 tairsiu 
The pèculiar reduplication of the prep. ctwum, 
&c., is possibly due to the analogy of ocum, octd. &c 
(Thurn.). 
Pvepositions with dative and accusative. 

90. i ' in' Jbr 'on' af ' for' 
Sg. 1 indium(m) form airi,m, e um 
2 bdiat fi, rt crut 
3 I). m. n. and 
f. i»tdi fidri, fi«ri 
A. m. n. ind foir, fait airi 
f. ite jbrrae 



56 

1. ] NTERROGATIVES. 
Substantival forms : 
Sg. N. m. and f. cla, n. cid ; pl. N. «itné ; (. coi«h : cht 
«md cid are followcd by the relat.ive form of the verh : e.g. 
,'la ratures ' Who dividesT, cM asr,&art ' What has he 
aid ',  bMerb coA'h i mag 'it is uucertain whose slave 
he is,' citȎ robatar ' What were they ?' 
Adjectival fonns : 
Sg. m. cla « ; f. ce-.s.ï, ci-M' ; n. ced', cid' : pl. all genders 
«it«d : e.g. c[a ffn5» 'What deed ?', ci.[ (.hvmairle 'What 
advice?', «ia «]wtdl ' What kind ?', citd briathra 'What 
woMs?': in certain stereotyped phrases c[a (ce) is 
found for ail genders, e.g. c[a-umgit, ce-redit (f.) 'Ho 
great?': c[a b,das, c'it, da. 'In what mamer How' 
c[a is also found intensified hy the addition of doo ' then." 
The oblique cases are expressed by means of the preposi- 
tions, e.g. c[a du ]orvmn 'to what end ', c[a in olcaib 
"in what evils ?', cia dtt ,e,wh 'to whom ?' 
In coniunction with the col,ula m. ce-, n. ci-, e.g. ce-bad, 
ce-ptar, c@ad, c-ip. 
The forms cote, catte, pl. coteet, cateet, cateat, are found 
in the sense of ' in what consists' ; e.g. cate in fi'rime ' bi 
what consists the righteousness?', cateet diuitiae sm,d 
" What are dhdtiae here ?' 

INTERROGATIVE IARTICLES. 

The partiele bP  (ira before b) is used to introduce a 
direct or indirect question, e.g. b*-dnccatar (t,wcatar), 
ira-hem: frequently an indirect, question is introduced by 



57 

dfis, d(tu.s, (i.e. do J'us) + in =' to know whether,' e.g. du{s 
in-comalnid, d6u.s i. itamlitis. In a double question 
either the in is repeated or m«»ther l,artiele fi (bec. bd) is 
used, e.g. im-bem imbethu, ira-hem, imbdas 'whethcr wc 
be in life or in death,' i»t duit fi;b fit do 
'whcther it is for thyself or for solne other pcrson,' 
damso[Jhd fit-nacc ' whether he would deliver me or hot ' ; 
fit is really part of the copulm Negative interroffatives : 
b-md, im.[ (rttre), i-Mmdd, ('«oi (cbff) ('«ti belote 
lwetonic -fo ; all expect ;ua trmative answer, e.g. in-mhl-n 
-««çai or ea»i.aeç«ti ' I)«»est thou uot sec ? ', 
thou uot slay?', in-l md-r(,ilg2id'll:tve )c hot reml?', 
«(th-ro.o[b,d ' llas ho ot heel sanctificd?': the Imzali- 
sation of i»F' is carried o er the negzttive ndd 
as also halq»ens at times tftct- the Colmla. e.g. 
m-briethra 'Is it the Wol'ds?' v.  15. 

9. I')EM( »N,'4TI(A'I'IVE [)RON( »UNS. 
• O (set, se)and silt m'e uscd as ncutcr accusativcs after 
prepositions and the equative t»f adjs. :dem»dthirso 'as 
sure as this,' demtithir sit;co-se 'hithcrto,' co.in 'so 
far': as 1). sht, sbt, e.g. de-Mu 'from here'; after com- 
pal'ative m6a sin ' greater than thtt ' : s[t without a lwep. 
means 'here, in this world' as contrasted with 
' ytmder, in the othcr worhl " : N. and A. for ail genders, 
i.o (hse), i.in ; i. hWinso, i si 
The atml»horic pronotm side. 
N. only in the l,hrase ol suide ' quoth he,' ; sg. 1). m. 
suMiu, f. mtidi; A. m. suide, n. sodaiq f. suidi: 1,1. D. 
suidib, A. m..uhliu : enclitic forms, sg. N. m. side, »ede ; 
f. «Me, ade, ede. A. sidi ; n. side : pl. sidi, .sMe, adi, ade : 
.exalnples, do mtidia 'o him,' la su&li 'with her,' la sodctht 
' therewith,' m6o suidiu "more thau that' ; cnclitic é-.hle, 
• '[-ade, =' he,' ' she,' Clul»luttie, a b'es-.shli ' his fitith ' (i.e. 
the fait.la of this l,articular l,crson), ¢t 6ilde ode "her 
l»euty,' sttmlalhttc-Mde'he imitates,' .mal 
«idi ' as they do.' 



94. 
1 fiit, ./'.déin, «éin, «adCn je.iue, 
2 .të'i,.t,léi fdi.sne, .fé.in, fctdékne, 
{ III. !1..[é.s.iu, .lëin, .fitde.iu, .t6s'ine, Jë&ne, fe.it, fitdei.ne 
«.e.,in, «.ade«in 
f. jë.ine, Jëi.ne, .fitdi.s'in 
«adés.in 
Thcse fol'mS are eoml,oumled of 
/) or «ia, «id ' though" (reduced to «ad, «-) + a pers. ],ton. 
3rd sg. m. f. 1st, 2ml, and 3rd I,l. + a demonstrative (v. 
}'edersen V. G. 153). The e}eal'eSt fornis etymohȍically 
are 31'd sg. m. n. fi«d«.bt<td-é-sin or 
<'j?t-#.in or "fa ed-.in, «adesin 
< "Jtd-ç.s.in ; pl. 1. 
2. fadi.in <'fad-.bin but. following analogy of 3rd sg. f. ; 
3. fitde.in, cadesin < fa##.in, ¢('id-e-sin. In the sine. 
the fOl'lllS fol' thc ls and 2nd pers. were origimdl3 
::rd 111. ll. 
Examl,les : rué .féin 'myself,' mo .s.,ithçtr fdit 'my own 
work,' mu teIma céin. 'lny own lnilld '; tt .féil! 'thyself,' 
deit jëbt 'to thyself,' 
.&desin ' his own body' ; h6adi fiul&in ' from herself " ; 
dtot «hani.sbt' o ourselves,' frinn fanis.in or 
"against ourselves' ; daberid-..i fdksne 'ye yourselves give 
it. ' : , fili.fé.ine ' heir OVll 1,oet.' 

9 INDEFINITE IRONoV.N .% 
necl < e-/?'o.% N.A. e«h, u. roT, G. nei«h, i). eu«h, 
neoch, n. du, neo (MI.)'anyone, anyt.hing,' in ol'igil  
negative: e.g. ni-Jël ech 'fllere is liO one,' doevg«tiri 
neç.h 'for the forbidding of anything'; followed l»y  
relative sentence, do euçh as dorahl 'eoncerning wlmt- 
over is dicult.' 
The proclitic fovms NE. mch. n. «t , G.m. tab'h, f. 
na«htt, A. m.f. nach", n. ud. are used adjcetivally ; e.g. 
na«h oib 'some saint,' ai«h baill 'of some menaber,' 
naa«h rainne ' of SOlUe 1,ar (f.) " : i»efore a relative sentence 



59 

ni frequeutly becomes an[ or m-u: e.g. «tn[ «t. 
a-n[-téte 'whatever it cornes to': thc ld. nacha is only 
nsed in negative sentcnces, e.g. nSb«td mçh. ««vm aili 
' let it hot he any othcr arms' ; for positive alaili is used 
necht.r=" one (of two),' ne«bt.r n-di " cithcr of them.' 
cch < +k"Sk"o.' N. l ). A. c5¢'h, G. relit'h, ' everyone ' ; 
bcfore a relative verb with the art. e.g. in cSchjbr'amit[ev 
"everyone on whom thou passest julment." in «hSh'h 
«retes "of everyone who bclicves.' Proclitic adjcctival 
forms ca,'b, cech. (.f. ca«ha, cee/m, n. cab'h; pl. 
cecha, ,'ach. ,'e«h, c.g. ca«h ball "cvcry mcmher,' «e«ho 
dethhlnc, ' ail carcs." hi «'o«ba per.'a»,ib ' in ail l,'rsons' ; 
distrihutivcly with the numcra.ls, «a«h o5« 'cach one,' 
('ach d«i 'cvcry two,' &c.: with G. of 3rd pers. -f lron. 
,'ach de 'cach of thcm." ce«ht««r='caeh (of two),' e.g. 
«e«ht, r in dd rann ' each of the two l,arts," ce«ht(«r n-ni 
'cach of thcm (two).' 
aile <+al'os, N.A. sg. n. aill, is uscd suhstantivally after 
the art. or mwh : c.g.m, int aile. f. iM aile, n. a 
n-aill 'the othcr': mwh aile " some othcr' : the indcfinitc 
subst, form is m.f. alaile, n. alaill, uncontractcd G. sg. f. 
abc aile, (. l,l. ala n-aile, X. 1,1. in s.I;. ala-aili : 
X.B.--alaile with a noun='certain, some," but also 
"another,' e.g. di-alailiu dilgud 'of another forgiveness': 
alailial, ili= 'someothers,' ind al,--al, ile " the ont 
the other.' 

96. ADVERP, S oF PLACE. 
.od ' bere' il-lei, il-le, ' hither' 
toll ' on that side ' i»m-«mn ' to that side' 
tta. ' above " .«ta. ' upward ' 
tL* ' helow ' si l ' downwards " 
tait ' east ' .(tir ' eastwards ' 
thtr ' west ' .¢#," ' westwar, ls ' 
te.,» ' south ' sa-de.,." [ ' southwards ' 
jh-(lc.  
sa-tb,iaid ). 'northwar,-ls" 
tSaid ' m)rth " fit-tb&dth  



6O 

Advcrbs of Plaec--contbmed. 

de-.4it 
an-MI 

hellee.  
from thag side.' 
ff'oto above.' 
from below.' 
from the east.' 
from the west.' 

an-de.. ' froln the south.' 
an-tt'aid ' ff'oto tbe north. 
te., is fornled after the amdogy of tdaid; .s.e«htair= 
"out of,' an-e«htai»" 'from outside.' 

97. IIELA'rtVE ,,ENTENCES. 
The relative is expressed in the following ways: 
(et) by neas of thc demonstrative .a", 
befm'e a lal,ial) after a preposition; .s.a ' stands for ail 
genders, cases, and nunbers ; e.g. m.-n-dént«t« ' for 
which is ruade,' jwan-d-vo.gab 'in (lit. 'under') which 
he bas uttered it," tre-san-&catav 'through which 
are saved'; it is hot eml,loyed after in" or after a 
negative, c.g. in-atreba "in which he dwells,' 
«onbi 'of whieh he has not '; .a" (.anl), ¢tz (aïn) changes 
to .sin, 8ira (in, iïn) heforc the d of t, he infixed pronotln 
and the 3rd sg. -d and -b (-p) of t.he copula except in 
dian-, ./ban-, dag-, e.g. ar-in-(I-el)ev 'for whieh I say it," 
t.e-sin-(1,-bia 'through whieh they shall have' ar-im-t2 
ut st. 
(b) 1,y the relative fOl'mS of the verb whieh al'e found in 
3rd sg. and lsb and 3r(l pl. of simple vcrbs in the absolute 
flexion, e.g. bere.s 'xllo bears.' beirme 'whieh we bear,' 
bette 'who ]»ear.' In the pass. aud dep. the conjunet 
forms are used as relatives. 
(c) by prefixing 9o to the 1st aud 2nd sg. and 2nd pl. of 
the pres. ind., pres. suli, and fut. of simple verbs, e.g. 
no-guidimm ' what I l,ray,' m»thechti ' which thou 
possessest,' no-bevid 'which ye earry.' 
(d) by infixing a relative elenlent whieh appears 



61 

a', or mercly leuition, e.g., imm-e«'huretar 'who C;ILITy,' 
ar-a-thd 'which is lcft,' no-cbnirigur 'what ] blamc,' 
ad-«bess 'what was seelJ.' 

98. I.EITIXt; IELATIVESEXTENCE. 
(et) Ila 3Il. alid S.(. the anlaut of relative fornls is 
lenited, e.g. int[ cb,».««s 'he wh«, loves,' (tn( «hantts 'what 
sHgs. 
(b) The absolute forlns of the eopula lenite the followin 
alllaut, e.g. «o.s cb,tarnc 'whi«.h is contrary,' atn «bo.*m«tili 
"which arc silnilar," bç.w «bob,iv ' hieh will ho i/il iii(l.' 

99. 'ASAIAZINt; |EI.ATIX E ENI'ENÇES. 
((t) Wheu the relative den,»tes rime when, c.g. in tct, 
mberes. 'when she bears,' ho;re no-n-dob-mol«»'-sa "hccause 
] fraise you' (bdre G. of ittl»" 'hour' was ol'iginally tem- 
poral) ; silnilarly after «Cn, cdne 'as le,nu a." a" 'while.' 
(b) Whcn the relative dclmtes quantity or manner, 
e.g.i. [ méit do-n-indnaffar 'that is the l)rOpol'ti«n in 
which it is bestowed,' ind,s. ,o-m-bied-si "the way in whieh 
you are' ; similarly after ¢tmal and feib 'like. as,' and in 
the case of the 'figura etymologica,' e.g. ni,ldend. . 'o l- 
légtsa (tct is cb's««g««l ro-n-d-c»b'n««gts.a t lS llOt et 
l'eadillg I have rend but a reprimand (with) which I bave 
l'eprilnauded him,' a forcital .for-n-dob-cana»" 'the teaching 
by which ye are taught. 
(c) Sometimes iustead of lcnition whcn the relative is 
thc ohject of thc verb iii the relative clause, e.g. cecb 
irnde do-n-gneM 'every prayer that ye make.' 
(d) When thc relative represents the predicatc nOUlb e.g. 
co-mbi ob«'horp pectho as-m-berar 'so that it is one body 
of sin itis callcd,' plebs dei as-n-dan-be»'tbe ni 'we used 
to l»e called plcbs Dei.' 
(e) After ol, e.g. ol-d«a.r ( * ol-n-taas. 
(f) sometilnes to denote reason why: c.g. ix hed 
dathav dom (d=nasalized t) 'that is why people are 
an'y with me.' 



62 

(9) explanatory and to mark oratio obliqua: e.g. bad 
»wrtad d'tib b.«o, a«-n-db'sid 'let this l)e an encouragement 
t() you, that yc will fise,' bés «tsbera-st «te n-ai»m do.,om 
auimus 'l,erchance thou wouldst say that «t»ffmt. is its 
lltlllê.  
(h) the relatic foc'ms of simple ver},s (exccpt the copla) 
bave nasalized anlaut usudly in Wh. and regularly later : 
e.g. t' ttti m-b 'when he is,' h6re d, qe (d= rit) 'be- 
eatlse he goes.' 
(i) the «tbsolute forms of thc copula used relatively 
nasalize the folh)wing aulaut when it begins a sylla»le 
which bears the principal accent : e.g. cdi, b«t.s' m-beo so 
long as he is alive.' 

100. TrIE GEITIVEOF THERE.ATIX E 
The genitive of the relative is expressed : 
(,) },y a formally ,on-relative sentence containing a 
genitive l,ronoun, i.e. a 1,ossessive pronoun ; e.g. rgte ni 
'éid a nbvith, lit 'things hot easy their referring'= 
'things whose reference is hot casy'; biit alaili 
a pectbe, lit. 'thcre are somc their sins arc found out'= 
' whosc sins are found out.' 
(b) by a relative sentence introduced by ets, ' which is,' a 
relative t,reverb, the negative «t, ad, or relative nasa- 
lization: e.g. i»tl ,s bdnirt hires. 'he (his) faith is 
weak'=' whose faith is weak; la.-a c,machtgt»ambait 
mdm 'to the mighty ones under whose yoke they are: 
b#td ad-rd«'at«tr lcs.q "food that they did hot stand in 
need = of which they did hot stand in need." 

101. THE NEt;ATIVE. 
i .q, .icon ; belote the inq,erative and optative d', ha  : 
before infixed pronouns mwh, ri(wh; in relative sentences 
and after interrogative b", »dd, nad ".. s.ech »l---i or [-- 
o«ws nwh ='ncithcr--nor.' Examples : tri dé»Hm 'I do 
hot,' tricotr-choseram 'we destroy hot' (in later O. Ir. it 
nasalizes, e.g. tricotr-dét =-»ttgt), trt-déte 'do hot" trtch- 
i»t-ro(jb«t (t«dl may pride hot seize us'! t«dt[-ttd-c]re»t«t 



'those who buy hot,' in-nad-«t'«dakl .i 'have ye hot 
heard?" sech ni-tbart«at coin, n[-comt«a«btmm" ni 'neithel" 
bave they given l,or have we asked," ni ind Je.«in eirbtbi 
3 na«h dd du-ai«ilbi .nann[ do.gni 'it is l,Ot in llinself 
that he trusts, neither d,es he aseribe to himself the things 
whieh he does.' 
The indelendent l,egative is naicc, nacc='no, l,ot': 
in.--.fit nace 'is--or l,Ot': emphatie nacce 'by no 
neallS,' adjectival or oomposition fOl'm in nacca dira 'a 
non-el,tity' MI. 75 b 20: nade, nate < mtd+hé='no' 
in allSVel" to either et positive or ne.,_.'ative que.tiou (the 
form natho is aee. to I-'edel'sen horrowcd fron, W. 
used in reference to « preterite tense), a later form is are; 
tacco, tatou= 'no' as either simple «lel,ial or strong con- 
tradictory, cf. (Ierman doch, Freneh st'. 

102. "['EM l'ORAL PR EER P..q. 
ro, com, ad, od. ess, to-od-, de-ess-, to-com-. 
A perfective nleaning for indicative or suhjunctive verbal 
forms is cxpressed hy means of certain preverbs of which 
fo is the lllOSt usual. 
(a) the preterite with perfective preverb bas the 
nleaning of a perfect or pluperect; e.g. as.bert 'he 
said,' as.ru-bart 'he has said'; argtt,'t d6ib "riant maith 
con-ro-itatar a-rly'he taunted them that they had llOt 
guarded their king well." 
(b) the present indicative with preverb, in a dependcnt 
clause, becomes a pertect consuetudinal present, i.e. 
denotes what precedes a customary action; e.g. in. m'rail 
do-.n-dniat ho ru-mailh for a .ndimtea .remib 'the cry 
they make when their enenfies bave been routed by them.' 
(c) in a dependell clause he imperfect indicative 
with preverb becomes a perfect consuetudinal preterite 
when he verb of the main clause is an iterafive past, i.e. 
denoes the completion of a repeated action in the pas. 
(d) the future with the preverb beeomes a uturum 
exactum, i.e. denotes an act.ion tha is imagined as having 



taken place at seine future tilne : e.g. mani roima f»" a 
«en, ni mema fi, rmm bMb ' if their head be uot dcfeated, 
the memhers will net be defeated'; (Thurn. however, 
t«tkes ',,ima= romd, suhj.) similarily with 1,res. subj. used 
as future, di«t-n-de-r-balam i, nl-bia ne«b 'if we should 
die, thcrc will be no one.' 
(e) the imperfect subjunctive with prevcrb=future 
perfect; e.g. act ar-roi-lgither ind epi.stil .o d'dbsi'as 
soon s this epistle slmll have beeu read te you.' 
103. re of possibility. 
(a) present : ««..beir ' ho says,' ,..ro-bctir ' he tan 
say,' [ ru bai ' it eanuot be.' 
(b) future: i de-r-genat 'they will net bC al»le te 
de it.' 
(,.) conditional : d-a.ri-gente ' ye could have donc it.' 
(d) pres. subi. : cia ru-bé 'though it could be.' 
(e) imp. subi. : fi'inli do.ro-n«ul nach uile 'at a thiug 
which auy other could de.' 
104. Further uses of re. 
(a) in vishes: ro-p cdrae ddib 'may there lc peace 
te them.' 
(b) in commands: ouly in negative sentences : i 
r-ga[tha ' let him lmt defraud'! ni-m de-r-.«aigv ' wake me 
llOt.  
(c) intention : urna de-r-lind 'lest i shou]d seaudalize.' 
(d) necessity: i. écen con-dd-r-ba..t««r 'if is ueeessary 
that it should be shmrn.' 
(e) permissive: «ffter a«ht 'provided that'ç e.g. uct 
rOl 'provided that it be,' a« [ re bat 'provided there 
be net.' 
105. Position of re. 
(a) fixed re: as a rule this re cornes immediately 
before the verbal stem after the other prepositions e.g. 
as.ru-bart, [.rburt < * e.-ro-bert. 



65 

(b) movable ro: c»mes immediatel.v after the last 
1,retouic prevel.1, : e.. im.ruLd-bed <oeim-ro-di-bed. 
ro.im-di-bed, in.r-tttt-hltttar < :iwro-od-lodatar, nad-r- 
bd-«ta-ld, tar: it is 1,1aced after the 1,top. fo, when fo is 
he second 1,art of a colulOUl¢l, to avoid the contractiou 
ro-b>r6 : e.g. bnfo-rlaing: fo or ail infixed 1,ron.+ro 
is inserted in the 1,rel,. flot as though for=fo+r; e.g. 
fo-rro-r-br,: (rr= nf), Jb-da + ro-r-cem .tbr.cema. 
106. Preverl,s which usm'p the functi,ms of fo. 
coin: e.g. with pres. sul6. fi'is-com-,rr fromfi'*-oir9; 
with 1,reterite a.'-com-ort (a-oirŒ). 
ad: with verl,s eOml,Otmded of coin, e.g. conti[ 
< con-d-til (com-ttil) cocab < con-d-gab (com-gab). 
od : con-oi-t-ecb tatar <  co-od-t- (con-dieig). 
ess : ss-ib-sem (ibM). 
de-od: do-o-mmalgg *do-od-m (mleg-), t-o-pacht 
< *to-od-bacht (boig-). 
de-ess : desid  * de-ess-sl (sad-). 
to-com : du-cu-t  * to-com-ti 
107. Veq»s which do no adroit perfective 1,reverbs. 
1. verbs COlnpoundcd with fo, e.g. fitir, rocltthtethar 
rolaimehar. 
2. compouuds h'om the roots 9ne, icc (-on-). 
3. the l,rootonic forms of ad.ci, and the 1,erfect ad- 
con-dah'ç. 
4. ithid, tella, talla, duthrach, at.bath, fo.tair. 

VII.--THE VERB. 
108. The verb bas two ¥oices--Active and Passive, and an 
Active verb may have either au active or deponent flexion. 
The latter has arisen front the Id.G. Middle and differs 
from the passive flexion i form; in the ilnperfect indi- 
cative, preterite suhjunctive, 1,rctcrite future or conditiolml, 
the 1st sg. pres. ind. al»s. of denominatives in -ivitldr, iidir, 
the 2nd pl. of all teses and luoods, and the 3rd sg. iln- 
perative the del,onent forms «tre the same as those of tlle 
active. 
e 



G6 

There are three moods: indicative, imperative, and 
subjunetive. The iudieative mood has rive tenses : present, 
imperfeet, 1,reterite, future, and l,reterite future (also ealled 
seeondary fntm'e or eouditional). The subjunetive mood 
bas only t.wo tenses, present and preterite ; the imperative 
mood has no tenses. 

109. TENSE-STEMS. 
The tenses and moods of a uormal verb are formed from 
rive distinct stems. 
(Indicative preseut and imperfect. 
1. Present Stem (Imperative. 
( Subjonctive present and 
2. 5ubjunctive Stem -( l,reterite. 
3. Future Stem -(Future and future preterite. 
These three stems belong to both active (or deponent) 
and passive flexions. 
fPreterite Indicative active 
4. Active Preterite Stem -( and deponeut. 
f Preterite Indicative 
5. Passive Preterite Stem  passive. 

110. STRONG AND WEAK YERBS. 
Verbs are divided, in accordance with their mode of 
stem-formation, into two classes, Stroug aud Weak. Strong 
verbs are primary, weak verbs denominative; the chier 
_eristics of the latter being the formation of an 
nd_au ffutgre.  
The weak verbs are divided into a-verbs alld i-verbs 
a_h_e tenninatiou of the 3rd sg. pres. 
eot flexion, e.g..càra, "léïcL I1, the case of the 
str_ug_rbs-there,-is terminati6n, e.g..beir, .ben. 
111. NUIBER AND PER,SON. 
The verb has only two numbers sing. and plur. (a dual 
subject takes a plural verb, so also may a sing. collective 



67 

hOUle). IIi the active and deponelt there are three persons 
iii each IHllll]el', iii the l,assive there are only forms for 3rd 
sing. and 3rd plur. 

1 î2. REL.VI'IVE FOR31.. 
01 In the simple verb iii the absolute flexion separate relative 
forms occur in the 3rd sing. and 1,lut. and usually in the 
1st ldur. 
113. PESONAL ENDIN:S. 
The 1,ersonal endings lnay 1,e divided into rive classes : 
1. Pres. in(l. and sul.i., future, s-lreterite, thc 1,1ur. of 
act. and dcp. and imp. pass., the sing. of thc /-preterite. 
2. Imp. siug. act. and dcp. 
3. Iml,erf. ind., 1,ret. subi., prct. future. 
4. Sux-less ]ret. ind. and 1,lut. of -preterite. 
5. Pi'et. iud. pass. 

114. AP.S(»LUTE AND C(»NJUN('T FLEXION. 
In most tenses and Uloods the personal endings have two 
sers of forms called 'absolute' and 'conjunct.' 
The conjunct flexion occm's :-- 
1. Iu all verbs COml,omded with prepositions. 
2. III the simple verl) (a) after the verlal partieles 'o and 
no, (b) after the following l,articles and conjnllCt,iOlIS, [, 
ico, u, ndd, (na«h-) nacon, in, ara", dia'", co", con", 
hua ', a particle and relative (s)a '. 
Absolute flexion oecurs iii the siml,le verl, with tlle 
exception of the cases above lnentioned, e.g. abs. berid, 
gaibid, marbaid, léicM ; conj. do.beb', fo-gaib, ul-s-mavba, 
arc.léici. 
The absolute and conjunct flexiollS correspoud to the 
Oldal'y l,er.Ollal-_ endlngs_of [d.G. Some 
verbs which always take a preposition I,efore them when no 
conjunct or verbal particle is prefixed al,pear only in the 
-conjuuct flexion, except iii the imperative where the accent 
falls on the first syllahle and the t,repositiol is droppcd, 
e.g., 'o.chtinethav, rofitir, 3rd sg. imp. club,ed, finnad. 



115. ÇLAS.qIFICATION OF VEI3S. 

V,'eak verbs are denoted by A, strong verbs by B. 
A I. a-presents : lrêsênt statu 
caraid < kar--ti, 
A 1I. i-l,resents : present stem = verb stem +-i-; e g. 
lé&id < liok"-g-ti, .ldi,'it < liok"iÇ6. 
A III. stcms ending in a vowel, e.g..gn& <gnê5. 
B I. present stem = vcrb st.cm + thematic vowcl -o-, -e- 
(v.  116) with consequent variations of quality in the final 
consonant of the stem; e.g. berot (r «) <Sbher-o-nt, but 
berid (r ) < bher-e-ti. 
B II. prcsent stem=verb stem (with nasal infix)+ 
t, hematic vowel: e.g. bo-n-g-id 'breaks' («/bog), to-n-g-id 
'swears', cf. Lat. pet-n-go, ta-n-go («/pag, 
B III. l,resent stem=verb stem +q-suffix; e.g. gaibid 
'takes' <hnbh-fe-ti. cf. Lat. «ay-io. 
B IV. present stem = verb stem +-nd- (-n-) : e.g. benaid 
'strikes' <%hi-n-ti, 'enaid 'buys' <pre-n-ti cf. Gk. 
ép,,o. In Proto-Kcltic -n- had become shortened to 
-ha- after thc analogy of the plural be-n-me.qi, &c. 
B V. as in IV. l»ut originally with i quality of the-n- 
which frequently remains; e.g. a'a.chrin 'perishes' ; in 
ad.gnin "recoguizes' and 'o.«ltbethar 'hears' the 
i-qualit.y of the n is proba]dy the result of infection before 
a Ço- sux: thus gn-nÇ> .gnin, cht-n-> .çlub-, cf. Gk. 

116. IODE. OF FLEXION. 
In Id.G. there wcre two modes of flexion, viz. 
thematic and non-thematic. Ve,'bs with thematic 
flexion had in the indicative -o- or -e- before the personal 
ending, e.g. bher-6, bher-e-.i, bher-e-ti, bher-o-mos, 
Sbher-e-te, «bher-o-nti: those with non-thematic flexion 
had no thematic vowcl bêfore the l,ersonal ending in the 
indicative, e.g. 'es-mi,  es-s'i, »e.-ti. 



69 

117. PERSOXaL EXDIXf;S. 
Id.G. had two series of personal endings, riz. primary 

and secondary. 
Sing. Phu'. 
Prim. Sec. Prim. Sec. 
1. f-mi -m -me.% -mo.q -me,-mo 
2. -.s.i -s -the -te 
• % -ri -t -tti 

In O. If. toE lry_ en(_li_n'sg_Lvere douhless originally 
._:.dZ_in the_.bsolute fleOll aad thc secondavy 
dings in the coujunet, hut.2wi!g tonalohe l,rimary 
are fre,utlv found in the eonjunct flexiou also, 
e.g., .reth < ter-e-.% 'thou rmmest" beside .bb" <bher- 
e-. 'thou beavest.' 
Ending of I st pers. sinff. : -ira.-imm (-ctim, 
responds to the non-thematic lwimary ending -mi, the 
arising ri'oto the palatal quality of the 
slmuld bave remained unlenited is probably due to the 
influence of the 1st sing. of the eopula 
(Thurn.) : the thematic ending -6 aplars as -o, -u, e.g. 
arco, thtge < p2"k-6, %te&h-5; it appears as -u regularly 
in the 1st sg. conjunct of monosyllabic stems in 
• glu, otherwise it apl,eavs merely as ,¢-qu:dity of the fiual 
consouant of the stem iu conj. 1st sg.. e.g..bim" 
<%her-6, .cm <%mn <%m-a. The ending -bn 
gradnally ousts the -6- ending mtil in the Mo(lena 
]auguage it is miversal. 
Ending of 2nd pers. sinff. : the -i is vedueed from the 
thematic primary ending -e-, + si whenee it. soread analogi- 
eally to the other verbs: thus beri <%er <%herei 
<%her-e-s£ In the conjmmt form the secondavy endiug 
disappears, e.g..bh" <  bhe»'-e-.. 
Ending of 3rd pers. sinff. : -M, -ith (-cM, -«dth) repre- 
sents the thematic pvimary emliug -e-, -g, -a-, +-ri : e.g. 
be»'id < bher-e-ti, lg'M < :*liok"->ti, cm'aM < ka'--ti : 
the seeondavy euding is represented b the eonjunct forms 
• cm'a, .léici, .bei," <k,'-&t, lik"'--t, %ber-e-t. 



. l. " 70 
Euding of Ist pers. plut. : l,solute -mi represents 
G. -me.i > mei > mL t.he m unlenied tbrough ana}ogy 
of he 1st l,ers. 1,I. of eolmla ammi <%.s-me.i: the eon- 
.imm ending-m (m «) rel,vesets -mo., e.g. beram <bher- 
o-mo.s.: this-m was originally lenited but gradua]ly loses 
its lenit[on through the influence of he absolute 
Ending of 2nd pers. plut. : absolute -the is either 
dual ending -thes or a new formation analogous to ls 
pl. -mi. -me ; eokiune -hl cornes from the thematie  owel 
+ Id.G. secondary ending -te thus .berM < (e)-bher-e-te. 
Ending of 3rd pers. plut. : absolute -it, -ait rel,resents 
thematie vowel + prhnary endiug -#i, e.g. eara[t <A'ar- 
6-nti, Iéi«it <lioh"--nti : conjnnct-et, -at, (older-ot)= 
thematic vowel + secondarv endinu" -nt, e.g. léçet 
Lut, berat < %erot 
The relative forms for 3rd sing. and pl,.»d ls.t pl. are 
pr)ably.ve:b«d forms + suxed lWOnOUnS. 
N.B.For « diflçrent exl,lanaio of the l,erson«d endings 
v. Pedevsen V. G. M1344. 

118. Paradigm of Present Indicative. 
Active. 
Examples : ca»'aim 'I love', léicim 'I leae' biv«, '[ 
bel'.' 

ahsolute flexion. 



71 

conjunet flexion 

ahsolute 

Sg. 1 birt 
2 beir, (berf) 
3 berid,-ith 
rel. bere.s. 
Pl. 1 bermai 
tel. bermcte 
2 berthe 
3 berait 
tel. bcrd««c, 

• be'am .t«d-brem 

• berM, -ith .t,i-brM, -ith 
• bercer .t«d-bret 

The distinction hetwecll absolutc and con.[tnlct flexion is 
hot illVtlGIy ol,servcd: thu.% i,, weak verhs, 1st and 2nd 
sg. abs. l'e used also for eon.i. ; fm'ther in strolR' verbs al)s. 
fol'ms like f»r.eonim, .rethi are round used as eojunet 
beside remflar fovms like flw-«m, .bir. The relative 
ending of the 1st 1,I. -me is fom,d rcgularly only in Wh.. iii 
Ml. the ordinary ending -»i be'ins to tel,lace it. The 
unsyncopated form of the rel. 3vd ld. in -ire is due to the 
influence of the non-relative form in -ft, e.g. techta[te 
beside techte <*te«ht-de. 

119. |)EPONENT PERSONAL ENDINGS. 
,St pers. sing. : -ur, -or hoth <*Or (1-,ut v. § 108), 
explanation n,eevtain, er. Lat. ,cqu-or. 
2nd pers. sing. : -tirer, -der, prohalfly -the + r. 
3rd pers. sing. : al-,solutê -thir, -dit, eonjmet -th(cr, 
-da»'; the vowel belote this ending i. nevêr drolq,ed, 
eonsequently the original ending was -tf -. -tf"-, er. Lat. 
seqm-tl«r. 



72 

Ist pers. plur. : al»s. -mit, eonj. -mat, -mer (arch:dc 
-mot), with mfienited m cf. Lat..equi-mur. 
2nd pers. plur, : as in L. a special deponent e]lding 
is lacking; the ending of the 2ud pers. plut. act. is used 
instead. 
3rd pers, plut, : abs. -tir, cou.i. -tar <«-ntri, -ntr , cf. 

Lat. 
120. 
Examldes : labrm" 
AI. 
3 1.britbir 
Pl. l labrimmir 
2 lrtbrithe 
3 labritir 

Deponent, 
' I .l,eak,' cuiriur 'I place.' 
AII. 

121, 

PA.SIVE IERONAL ENDIN«;.. 

In the passive there are special forms ouly for 3rd pers. 
sing. or plut'. : Sg. al)s. -if, -tbb', conj. -er, -thar, -tber ; 
Pl. ahs. -tir, conj. -far, -ter. -if, «tf arises from -F; -thb- 
from -ti-r ; -tu, -tar from mti-; -nto-r ; cf. Lat. agi-lut, 

agu-ntnr. 
122. Passive. 
ahsolute. 
AI. AII. 
act. des. 
S.% 3 carthair h:icthir cuirthir 
PI. 3 rartair léi«ter cuirtir 
eonjullCt. 
Sg. 3 .cartbar .l&ther .cuirther 
Pl. 3 .eartar .léi«etar (ldb'ter) ",'m'rtcr 
al,solute eonjuuet 
Sg. 3 berair .berar (.berr) 
Pl. 3 bertnw .bertqr. 



The reniainin. persons of the passive are c×pressed by 
hlfixed pFOllOllliS with the 3rd sg. ; e.g., no-m-chal'thar. 
'I t%lll loved,' io-t-berai', 'thon art borne,' no«l-hSictkel ", 
' we are left..' 

The relative forms of l;|!en._Aui.d_l,assive are 
fl, o_f_ ---ïl,oA.tt_ill tjte_l..aIl]_2nd sg., and 
2nd pl. dponnt, whioh tak iii addition tlw prevei.l no-. 

123. Imperfect Indicative. 
No satisfactory e'plail:tlOll of the pcrsonal endings 
is fortheonlin: oli|y eolljmlel0 fornis u'e found, siilce the 
imperfeel0 always takes the preverb no hefln'e 

124. IMPEATIVE 
Personal endings. 
2nd pers. sing, : the 2nd sg'. imper, aet. cornes from 
form eonsisting of t.he verl stem + a vowel, and had originally 
no personal ending: e.g., car 
beD', <bher-e, er. Lat. oto-a, and-i, ag-e: the-thG -te 
of deponents is an old Middle ending -thês. 
3rd pers, sing. : ending'=-to : e.g., bered <bhere-to, 
carad < kar-to, lé«ed < *lit»k"- to. T. of 
the plur. are the saine as in the çio L of the 



 T_dtinetiombetweeu al)solutc aud co 
the principal accent ahrays falls ou the first s'llab]c e 
w_en.t.he form coq,tains an iufixed proouu. 
I)eponents have active flexiou in the 1st pers. phw., but 
in later MS,. dep. flexiou. The verh t[afft ' I go ' bas a 
form for the 1st pers. siug., riz., t[ag, t[ach 'let me go." 
Some verbs retaiu a vocalic euding lu thc 2nd pers. sing. : 
e.g., déne 'do' ff'oto do.gn/n, dé[cçe 'see' from do.cht 
(ac.ch«) and lu del). thc act. form cuire bcsi(te 

125. Active. 
Al. A I[ B I. & II. 
Sg'. 2 car Idi«" beir 
3 ('arad,-atl léh'ed,-et] berad,-ed 
Pl. 1 tarare léicem beram 
2 caraht.-aith léi«id,-ith berid,-itl, 
3 (',rat ldi«et berat 

Deponent. 

Examp]es : .c«»nalnadar "fu|fils': «,drithir 'places'; 
ro-cl,dnethar ' hears.' 
AI. AI1. BV. 
Sg. 2 co»<dnaithe,-dc <.irtle chtinte 
3 co»nalnad,-ath ,',dred chdne<l 
PI. 1 (con,aln,tm,-amar) (cuitera) (cSdnem, -emmar) 
2 comalnaid,-aith c,drid chtinid,-ith 
3 comalnatar cni»vtar chdnetar 
Passive. 
AI. AIL BI. 
Sg. carthar «,drther berar ('berr) 
Pl. cartar ('uirler bertar 

Verhs B III. iuflect iu the M,s. like A II. but lu the 
conj. 31"(1 sg. l)res, act. the forms bave no fiual vowel; 
contrast .gaib with .léi«i. 

126. THE UBJUNCTIVE STEM. 
The subjuuctive stem bas two forms, 
a»subjunctive and ssubjunctive. 

riz. the 



75 

rot, us .Ç«ar-«ar: accordingly the sulL stem and 
pres. stem are idenfical in verbs A I ; the thematie 
vowels -o-, -e- (B I.) md mî- B IV) are dropped: the 
-i- of A Il. is also los but causes the fimd eonsommt of the 
roo o retain an i- ,luality, henee the sulçi, endiugs beeome 
-ea,-e-instead of -a, -a-: in B III. the final eonsommt of 
he foot, h»se its palatal quality, e.g. lwes. stem 
aib- - suivi, gab-. 
-subjunctive is eOllned to strollg verl»s whose 
foot or ver]) eom ends in dental or guttural stogs and 
fo the foot, eonsequently the uasal infix of ]I II. is dr6pped 
 eompensatovy l«ngtheninv takes phtee, e.g. b,g-, 

127. 

a-Subjunctive Present. 

Active. 

AI. Ail. 
al,s. COlli. ahs. eonj. 
crtra .«'«tr Iéirea "lgic 
«arae «'crac Idive .Idi«e 
«araid -ith .rata Idieid, -ith .Idiçea 
caras Iéices 
Iéi«mi 
Iéb'me 
Idicthe 
léieit 
léi«de, -te 

.Idh'em 
ldieid, -ith 
léicet 

Like ca»', are infleeted a-subis, helolging to B [. ;t.q bera, 
cela, &c. The dcponents iHflect al»s. and con.i, cxactly as in 
prcs. indic, cxcept that 1st pers. sine', al,s. and conj. ends in 
-er,-af, intead of -ur, -or: -er after  palatal consonant, 
-af after rien-palatal. 
The passive forms are the saine as in pres. indicative 
passive exeep tha strong verbs bave in the sing. the 
endings -thir, -thar as contrasted with the indic. 



76 

128. a=Subjunctive Preterite. 
Examl,les of strong verh B I. 
sing', l,lur. 
1 .be'c¢in .be'mai 
2 .berlba .berthae 
3 .be'ad, -aih .bertai.¢. 
hl strong verbs the final consonan of the foot retŒEius 
the non-palatal quality due to the -a-, in other verbs he 
flexion is exactly that of the imperfec indicative. Deponents 
inflec like active verbs. 

Da¢Si ve. 
AI. AII. 
Sg..rartbae .bertb,te .léictbe 
PI..«,trtais .be rt a i. .l é iet i. 

129. 

Deponent. 
Al,s. Conj. Al»s. Conj. 
S. 1. (fe..ar) .fe.'mtr (fe.«Mmir) .fe.samar 
2. (./è..«cr) :lè.s'er (feste) .fes.id 
3. (fc.«tir) .fe.«tar ( fe.çadir) .fes.atar 

Passi ve. 

Sg. tk«stair ge.s'at r (.festir) 
Collj. .t[a.tar .ge.«,ar .fe.ntar 
Pl. (téMtir) (ges..itir) fes..,.itir 
Conj. (.t[a«rttar) "ge.s'rttrtr :lë.srttar 



77 

The 1st sing. al»s. is hot fimn(1, but iL prol»«dly endcd 
-a;tl«m has i)een iuflueneed by the indic. I,res. 
Only Lwo examples of Lhe bs. flexi«m of (lel,oneuts are 
fom(l, riz., 3rd sg. eMi," '(thou'h he) eat,' tel. me.tar 
'(who may) judgc.' 
Stems with £llaut, or Val'iatiou off vowcl, restore the 
origiual vowcl belote the addition o[ thc -s- ; thus guidim, 
stem gtdd <ag"hod'. is amant ri'oin ged<g"hed-, and 
ged + - becomes gess-. 
For hegimmrs diflicult forms are those of thc 3vd sg. 
conj., c.g., ffd, .td[, .16, but the Ioss o[ fin«d cons(mants is 
strict accoi'dance with phonctic law (v.  2 l aud cf. N. of cou- 
sommt«d stems,  57) ; thus, : ged + s + t > g«ç a s'teigh + s 
+ t >téi, alog +s>/6; in the othcr persons the -s was hot 
filttl, e.g., 2nd sing. gei.us<aged+. +.L Still more diffieult 
are the enclitic fol'ms of the 3r(l sing. where the stem is 
reduced to mercly the consonant or eousouants of the 
anlaut: c.g., t-in-fet<to-h-.4ç«ed 'inspires,' enclitic 3rd 
sing. pres. sul..t-inLb (unless he) 'inspire' (for b=.f< 
g't- v.  41 b (e): scochtl, sulj, stem (sees.,), enelitie 
eon.v5s; deuteroton, fo-16, prototon..fut The stem 
ag- is reduced to -a in .cuinten <%on-alLia and .tdi to 
in eon.éit. Final -r. becomes -rr and does hot disappear, 
e.g., orgid, 3rd Sillg. SU])j. *or' enclitie .coin-af stems with 
initial f=e in enclitie positions after a vowel disappear 
altogcther, e.g., do.col <de-co-«ess-t, du.dt <ato-dL 
fed-s-t. 

130. s-Subjunctive Preterite. 
Sing. ]|llr. 
1..ge..inn .téisinn .gesmi. .tiasmais 
2..gesta .ti««.ta .geste 
3..ge.sed .téised .ge.tis .tht.tctis 
Passive, 
• tht.t«e Pl..ges.tis 

Sg. .geste .t[«.tai, 

Under the influence of the a-sul)junctivc thc pcrsolml 
endin tend more and more towards a-quality : e.g. sg. 



78 

1st .«d.abo (..ebm), 3rd .b6.ad (botgM), pl. -mai% -tae, 
-tai. : the forms iu -tae beeome later-ta. Deponeuts inflee$ 
like actives, e.g..fe.b,, .fe.ta, &e. 
N.B.As no (or u[, di«d', ara", ,ç'c.) is ah'ays prefixed 
to the subi. pret., ouly eon.i, forms are found. 
TI FUTURE STE31. 
181. There are three types of future, riz., (a) the 4- 
Iuture, (b) the asigmatic tuture, and (c)the-s- 
iuture. Weak verbs fovm the -f- future, strong verbs the 
asignmtie or the-.q- future aeeording as they make their 
subjmetives iu -a- or -.q- : by way of exeepfiou some strong 
words adol,t thc -f- future, while a few weak verbs follow 
the asigma.tie future; e.g'..le, fut...icfea; cavaid, fut., 
.cechra, seavaM, fut..cdra. 
The f= Future. 
132. The f- future is formed by addiug the suffix -fa, -fea 
to the future stem: in the eoujunet. 1st sg. aet.. it is 
written -b (i.e. ff), and bas u-quality, e.g. lé[ç;tb; it. is 
sometimes also written -b in inlaut, espeeially after -s- 
The J 1,eeones palatal after a l,alatal vowel ; e.g. léiçfea 
<-l[»k*t4-fit, but. verbs A ]. change the qualit.y of the 
stem final to palatal belote this sux; e.g. anaid 're- 
mains,' fut. ahCed. The following exl,lanations of the 
origin of the suffix, none of whieh are quite satisfaetory, 
bave been offered : 
(1) That it is 1,art of t.he verb 'to be'like-bo in Lat. 
ama-bot, aud er. use of a.,mi 'I ara'in gkr. 1st fut. 
ddl.,i. If this t.heory were true, we should 
expeet to find b written more frequently than  but 
the reverse is the faet. 
(2) That it first arose from the redul,lieat.ed fut. of a 
verl, whose subi. stem was %t8, whenee redupl. 
fut. = .«,4t«- < %'fa, but sueh a verb does hot oeeur 
(Thurn). 

¢Aecording to Thurn. this is a new fornmtion frona -bain on the 
analogy ero : e','am : : a»mbo : amabam. 



79 

(3) Th«t it corresponds to the Old Welsh fut. in -lmu 
(from sa-), the suttix -.4a after a stem ending in 
spirant b (/3) would give cicr < v + h (Thurn). 
The probabilities are tlmt it is some form of the -s. fut. 

01Examl,les of the deponent forms in the sing. abs. are 
rare. In the 1st sg. dep. unsyneopated forms are round, 
e.g..cui'far beside .molfitr. 
Passive. 
Active and del,onent bave the saine inflection. 

ai)s. 
Sg. léi«fidir,-ithb" 
rel. léh'fider 
Pl. léicfitb" 
l'et. léicfiter, -fetar 
134. Future 
sing. 
2 .ldiqth n 
2 .léicfeda 
3 .ldic]ed, -feth 

conj. 
.léi«fider 
• léicfiter, -fet(tr 
Preterite. 
plut. 
• léicfim m is 
• léicfide, -filhe 
.léi«fitis. 

Passive. 

Sing..ldi«fide, -fithe. Plur..léicfitis. 
The deponents inflect like actives. Only conj. 
occur (v. § 123). 

forms 



135. THE ASlf;31ATIç' FUTURE. 
This future is formcd 1)" redul,licating thc a- suljuuctive 
stem I s fro'Cher sul,-dividcd ïuto three types (1)the 
ordmary reduplicated future, (2) the e-future, (3) 
the future af verbs B IV. (v.  ilS). 
1. The ordinary reduplicated future. The vowel 
of the redul,licrtel syllahle is either i or e, the latter 
usually belote a on-palatal consonant; e.g. with i, 
'is born,' sul, stem gena-, fut. stem gigote- <g:gea- ; 
daimid 'admits,' suli, stcm dama-, fut. 3'd sg..didma 
di-dama; ibid drmks, subi. stcm eba-, fut. stem 
¢ba <i-cba ( long through contrrction o vowels): 
with e, «amt«l 'sings,' subi. stem cam-, fut. stem ce«hta- 
<ce-chana-; do.rolgtt (1,erf.) 'has chosen,' fut. 3rd s 
do.gega. 
2. Th¢ e- utue( Almost all tloe forms uud bï this 
future are the res(fit of widcspread aualogy ff'oto a few 
genuine rcduplicatcd futures with a weu form of the foot 
like the Skr. desideratives : e.g. céla < cec]la 
kl being the weak form of the foot kel. Examples are 
; ' ' takes, .géba ; 
berkl, .bdra celid conceals, .cdla : gaibid ' ' 
do.gn[ ' does,' 
3. The uture of Çlass B IV. e.g. 'enaid sclls, fu. 
3rd sg. -rb'i ; le,raid 'adheres,' fut. 3rd sg..lili; benaid 
forms a future without redul»licatio, probably from the 
influence of .fe». 
ion of th e al)ove future.l, 2, and 3 isl)a of the 
3tt. 
136. The s- uture. "hof the s- futurç_is 
forncd...from t!m s- stlby reduplicatiou, the stem vowel 
being shorteno!" los.t. The vowel of (le uplication 
hs normally i, but hefore stems with a it usually 
hecomes e: e.g. gnidid ' " ' _ 
pras, subj. ffe..% fut. gi9...; 
bongid breaks, suivi, b6..-, fut. stem bib..s- ; but maidid 
'breaks,' subi. mds, fut. stem mem...s'-. 



81 

Note speciaily the followinff phonetic peculiari- 
ries :-- 
(a) ch alld ¢1 are retaiJed 1,cfore l, e.g. ad.claid 
hunt, fut. 1st siug. od-«i«hlw; dlongid cleaves, fut. 
stem did..l.-. 
(b) Vcrhs with an iuitial vowel only take the i of thc 
reduplieation, e.g. o'ffid 'strikes,' subi. o»-v-; fut. 
ithid 'eats,' subi. es.s.-from xed, fut. [ss-hy contraction 
(cf. lb-). 
(c) oots with initial .l drop the lenied  altogether 
after the reduplieatiou, e.g. .laidid 'strike.%' fut. sel...s.- 
< %e-.<l..s'- ; .ç'l;jid, fut..il...s.< %i-M...s'. 
(d) Vcrh. with initi«d s=., d have f<.<"d after the re- 
,luplicatio, e.g..ennid ( x / .s.denn-) , sul:j...ê....-, fut. Mf..-. 
(e) satid, sul,j..s.dm-, makes fut. st'a«s- < .i-.g.a...s'. 
(f) Roots with initial f < t3 drop i after reduplieation; 
e.g. subj. jè..s, fut. fia..s. < tdi-t2e.s..: as this la beeomes e 
whcn the stem does llOt fovm the final syllable, a coftlsion 
of the subi. aud fut. fovms results, e.g. vo./itiv 'kuows," 
fut..fict.ç'ta»" also us sul,j., while .festar (subi.) occurs as fut. : 
»nMith if 'judges ' form its fut. stem in .ndcts.- ff'oto analogy. 
(ff) The consonaut of thc reduplicatiou syllahle is lost 
aftcr fo- aud to- wllen they bear the ],riucil,al accent, e.g. 
• jbL.iti.s. (MS. Wh. 15 a 20) < j'oil.it < fo-l:lo.s'it', from 
.f»/obff; fo[chfio'v but deutcrotouic fo.cichuvr from 
,lb'ce5"d. 

FOR31. WITHOUT REDUPLICATION. 
137. When the stem is unaccented throughout all its 
forms, us is the case when two preps, precede it, i is noL 
reduplicated and does hot differ from the subjuucive, e.g. 
niM 'washes,' fut. -ninu.', but do.fo-nu..; orcdid, fut. 
io»'»', but do.es.«.-av»" ; tit ' I go,' fut. 3rd pl..hotsat 
< in-od-te.sat. 
2. Some verbs use he .-suhj. without reduplication as 
future, evett wheu the stem is accented : e.g. vethid, fut. 
3rd sg. -re'; hd,did, .lce (i.e., lé); ahlid, 3rd sg. abs. 
._œ'i._q.q. 



2 

18. Paradigm of the reduplicated s= future. 

Sg. 1 
2 
3 
rel. 
Pl. 1 
tel. 
0 
3 
rel. 
189. 
Sg. 1 
2 
3 
Pl. 1 
2 
3 

ahs. conj. del,. 
(gigsea), gig.e .gigius 
(gig.s.i) .gigi. 
ff iy i.s "e i9 .f (a.t a r 
vives 
(gi.immi) .9i«c,n fe.«amar 
(giv.s.imme) 
9EE ie.«'te "9 i9.'M .fe.,.s.id 
9 i9.'it "9 ig.et .jèssa t a r 
i9..ite. 

Future Preterite. 
• 'di9.'in n .im'r 
('9EEive.ta) .iirr, 
• ffigsed .iar»; .ior 
(.9EEig.intmi.') 
('ti9EEe.,'te) 
• gigsilis .errat, .htrat .ci«hret. 

.ci«him'r 
(.ci«hirr) 
.ci«herr 

I the conj. 3rd sg. the vowel of the stem is sometimes 
retaiued, sometimes lost as in the s- subi. e.g. "maidid, 
• mema ; mscM, mena ; but slaidid, .,.el ; .anich, .aih ; 
• ligM, .sil 
PFETERITE STEM (tCt. and dep.). 
140. The preterite stem appears only in the pret. indic. 
act. aud dep. It is formed in three ways : 
1. the s:preterite : all wcak verbs and a few strong 
verbs. 
2. the t=preterite : strong verbs in -1 aud --r and 
several iii -m and -g, active flexiou ouly. 
3. the suffix-less preterite : further sub-divided into 
reduplicated aud unreduplicated : all other strong verbs. 
141. The s: Preterite. 
T adding.-.s- (ori#uall,y 
-6'8-) to the verb stem ;the folan correspon[oE to".t è Id.(. 



142. 

Paradigm of the s- Preterite. 

• ca rsa m .léi«sem 

only. 
144. 

Sg. 1 
3 
Pl. 1 

Paradigm of the t- Preterite. 

COllj. 

accented 
.bim't 
.birt 
.bert 
(.bertammar) 
2 (.bertM) 
3 .bertar, .bertatar 



Of the abs. flexion are round only 3rd sg. birt, rel. 
bert,e, pl. tel. berhtr, bertatm'; the 1st and 2nd sg. were 
prohably bb't«, berti. 
Further examples: alhl 'rears,' ait; at.r, ig 'arises,' 
atracht ; celid ' hides,' celt ; .em-, -dt ; .sera, -.ét ; orgid 
' slays,' ort < orcht. 

145. The suffix-less Preterite. 
A. reduplicated. 
The vowel of the reduplication syllable is e ;_ the ini 
consonant of thê roo' 'llai,lê-'wli-h (;ll6ws Ïïks always 
non-p;dMM quality, evel when the verl) stem has a palatal 
vowel. The consonantal groups chl, fil, fit often remain 
after the redupl, syllable, but sl, .n- We sel-, sert- as in the 
s-future. 

146. Paradigm of reduplicated Preterite. 
Examl,le : canaid ' s'ngs.' 
conj. 
Sg. 1 .cechan Pl..cechnammar 
2 .cechan. .ce('hnaid 
3 .cecha bi .cech natar. 

Absolute forms are rare. Further examples are :-- 
claidid ' digs,' cechlad- ; maidid ' breaks,' memad- ; ad. 
greinn ' follows,' .gegrann- ; fo.glebn ' learns,' "geglann- ; 
'ennid ( Ç swnn-) ' plays,' sephann- or sefann- ( = *'e- 
«ann) : hgul hcks, lelag- ; igtd stnkes dowu, selag- 
(: smgtd drops, senag-= se-sr 
from the dep. gam«th" s born, ge-gn- has become gen. 
In later O. If. there is a tcndency to suhstitute the vowel 
of the present for thc e of the reduplication syllable, e.g. 
• ca('h¢tin for .cechain («anaut), bobig for bebig (bongid 
'breaks'). In prototonic forms with perfective vo the 
collsonttnt of the reduplication is lost and fo +e give r6e-, 
roi-, e.g. ro.cechan, prototon, ro[«h««n; ro.gegrann, pro- 
toton. .ro[grann. After this aualogy the prep. coin 
chauges to colin-, c6em-, e.g. do.nig 'washes,' 3rd pl. do- 
c6emnachtar (=*nag-tar) ; fo.loing ' endures,' fo.colin- 



I«,'htar (--lag-tar). I MI.  couçsio begns to arise 
betweeu the l'o- of the deuterotone 
ro'- of thefo :hir.k ha:a .[0îZ.d.upl. 
., e.g..tt)r'rïcdn-fo'-f'.ro[«hain and t'ice versd 
• r,[«lwdnatar fi»r ro.cechtatar. 

147. lrregular reduplication. 
Conçds o "ic bave . !weterçç stem ac-(c=g) 
i.e. tin-ce, cf. Skr. an-arc- from arc-, e.g. t-ic cornes, pre. 
l-dwaic. 
lb,id 'le»s' mkes leblanff-, with fo-, roiblag ; ling 
<:¢pling- redupl. Sple-plan hence, with loss of initial p, 
lebla»g: amdogieally drinŒid ' climl,s' m«des drebrag. 
iutçed to the initial eon- 
souant. tr the çlul,lieation, e.z. le-cï'd -sg. lil ; 
, .rit creçt-aid  g. -edr< cechr-. 3'; 
• gtin reeogmzes 1st. and 2nd sg., .gdn <Sgegn-; cikl 
' weeps,' «h. The ç]cp..:o.club.fhqr ,' heArs' OE u as 
1. Unreduplicated forms. 
The unreduplieated forms are divided into -preterites 
aud i-preterites. 
-preterite: some verl»s have d in the preterite stem 
vhen aeeented instead of t.he ê or â of their foot syllables, 
e.g. rethid 'ruus,' rdth- (encl..ro-rth-atar, .ro-rth-etar 
< %'o-reth-atar: techid flees, tdch- (encl. ad.rde-thach). 
i-preterite : /per, subi..era ' graut,' pret. 3rd sg. W ; 
mMithir 'judges,' 1st sg. m[dar (euel..ammadm'). 

149. lrregular unreduplicated forms. 
The verb ' to go' forms itsA»ret_erit.e oe. 1 and  :!od, 
,,mrike' nl soE.-bi, pl..b«otar, 
enêI..rwba, 



86 

150. Paradigm of unreduplicated Preterite. 
Examples : ,.l«idid ' prays and midithb" judges : 

A relative form dde is fouud iii 3rd sing. :in lat.er 
MSS. he 3rd s. conj. is used for absolute, c.g., [dh'h 
' flcd' (te,'hhl). In eoutradistinction to the deponen ending 
he 3rd ldural -atar of the active may he shortcned to -tav. 
151. ['.ksstv PRE'rEUlTESTEM. 
The passive prçt.s£m .cQrds $o 
v ïiï -tgia-, cf. td« and Lat. ve adj. 
scvip-tt-s. 
The t of the sux hecomes th or d (6) after vowels, e.g. 
cava-d, h@e-d, "9ngth, :t)'d-th : c and ff hecome ch before t, 
e.g. bo»ffid ( / bol), .bo«ht ; Mi9id, .Me«ht 
dental or s + t =s., e.g., mid-ithir, mes.. : claidM, 
ad.cl (/qL«i,.), .ce.«. : also stems in -n», e.g., .lcm, .çla ; 
o'id makes .ort <orch as fit the t-l,reterite. 
Ntrong verbs with roots containiug -er, -el change to 'e, 
le, e.g. ber;d, .b»rth ; «elid, .cleth ; ¢b.ceb'd, .cre.s. 
Stl'oug verbs in -n aud -m make preterites in -dt (t = d), 
e.g. c«t»,a,! 'sings,' «ét ; &dmM, dét ; do.moinethm., 
go,aid ' wouuds ' lnakes .goit, .gdet (from a diflrent foot). 
12. Paradigm of Passive Preterite. 
Ahsolute. 

AI. Ail. BV. 
Sg. ,3 cartkae ldicthe brethae 
Pl. not found no15 fouud nog round 
Conjunet. 
Sg. 3 .carad .léi«ed,-eth .breth 
Pl. .ca'tha "léi«thca "bretha 



7 

153. THE PARTICii'LES. 
The Past Participle Passive: This is formed from 
active verbs like thc passi'e l»l'eteritc, but with the suttix 
-tio-, ti«?-, e.g. cnrthae, ldicthe, dep. m,lt(te 
Stl'Olg vel'bs have the saine root as in the pi'et, pass., e.g. 
benid, blthe ; o'gid, ortie; ('l«tidid, cl«tisse; 
«dte : irregular arc gtiid, gnethe (contrast s»tiM, ,dthe) : 
Jbr.fen, ]ov.b¢tMe (unsylmopatcd), but also dr-bthc (used 
as adj.). This participle sometimes bas {he force of 
'possihility,' e.g. ven(dd 'sclls,' r[tbe 'saleable': ncph- 
icthe 'iucurable.' The declensio is that of ;uijs. 
-e, -ae,  69. 
The Participle of necessity : The suffix is -.ri -hi: 
abl Thurncysen (after Zupitza) suit in orihese 
liciples are old pl'edicative datives of verbal a])sCracts 
with the sux -tei-, -tF, and compares Skr. p-tdyê'for 
(h'ilkig' = ' to be (h'un,' e.g. cartbai, ldicthi; 
'sings' nmkes céti, but in compoun(1 fin'.«ai» both job'- 
«thi and jo'.c«tti; .em (do.em) makcs .iii (dlti). Verbs 
with stems ending in a dental or s make -.. sometimes 
-sti, e.g. g,tMM, 9essi, mMithb', me.¢s.i ; as.eleim, , 
eclst«i: benM and s'e'ncdd make bethi, srethi ; the 
partieilde of berid is only found in syneop;ted eom- 
pouuds as t«-b«trlhi, eperthi, thc abs. form was lu'ol)ably 
:brethL 

154. VERBAL NOUNS. 
Ill O. IlliCo'III L l!O i.l,itive, bu 
th uF-ffgê'o-'T a :el'ba ln iii the dit. wi:l 
es _pl)ache--th, ê } of"tlléi 
1. As a rule the verbal nouii has the saine l'oot as the 
'erb, but SOnle few verbs use a different foot as verbal 
nOUll, e.g. ,j«d y.n. of fichid 'fights," dl-çal of do-fich, 
&c. ; deuominative verbs luay havc the nOUll from which 
they are del'ived as verbal noire, e.g. lcc y.n. of [cc«tid 



88 

heals'; the usuM ending for denoninative verbM nouns 
is A I. -ad, -al]. A II. -iud, -iut], -ud, -uth, deelined as u- 
tem, e.g. mdraid 'magnifies,' ndrad ; léicid, l{ici«d ; also 
an«dd (primary verh), ana& 
2. Conpounds whose roots end in a guttural or -nn have 
no termination and deeline as neuf. o-stems, e.g. fo.loing, 
fulach ; ad.slig, aslach ; do.sebn, D. sg. tofunn. 
3. Neuters in -e (o-stems), e.g. saidid, suMe; laigM, 
lige ; fi'i..gai', ff'erre ; ad.ffnin, aitlge. 
4. Feminincs in -e (]d-stems), e.g. ff«idid, guide ; 
.slige : claMM, ch«Me. 
5. SuIx -tS, f. : e.g. bretl, G. brithe ; cleilh (celid), 
mlith (melht). 
Sux -to-, n. : e.g. nrath (mairnid), .mat (.mobethar). 
Sux -tu-, m. : e.g..mess <*med-tt (mMithër), fi.s.s 
SuNx -tiS-, f. : e.g. d[tin (d[-e»t-), Joditit (fo.daim), 
toim-tiu < *to-men-tit (do.mobteth«tr). 
6. SuNx m. -mu-, f. -md-, n. -smn- or -»n- : e.g. gnim, m. 
(gniid), cretem, f. (cvetid), cétmm, n. (cingid). 
7. Sux -nL, -nd-, f. : e.g. buain<*bog-ni (bongid), 
<*ag-ni (*a9id); orcun, G. oi».cne (o'ffid), fedan, G. 
fednae (fedid). 
8. Nouns in -l: e.g. ,'(tal (canaid) anacul (.anich), 
gab61 (9aibid). 
N.B.'enaM aud «'enaid make * ricc * cricc (D. A. sg. 
reicc (ricc), c-reicc) ; len«tid, 91enaM, tlenaid make lena- 
mon, ffloamon, tlenamon. The loan-words scr[baid and 
l(9aid make scrlbed and lgged fron Lat. gerund, and 
do.leg(t 'dcstroys' nake d[lgend after the analogy of Lat. 
delendmn. 

Complete Paradigm of the Weak Verbs. 
Exmnples : ca-raid ' loves,' léicid ' leaves,' .uidiidiv 
(dep.) ' places.' 



$9 

Active : 
AI. 
i55. 
Sg. 1 «arabn 
"2 «arai 
3 «araid 
l'e]. ('a»'o8 
Pl. 1 
tel. «armae 
2 «arthae 
3 «arait 
tel. «araite 
g. 1 .«art 
'2 -ca rai 
Pl. 1 -tarare 
2 .raraid 
3 .cara 

INDICATIVE. 

A Il. 
Present absolue. 
ldi«im 
léb'i 
léb'M 
léice.s' 
léi«mi 
léi«»e 
léi«tbe 
léb'it 
Iéb'de, -ite 
£'onjunet. 
• l(i«iu, -ira 
.l(i«i 
.léi«i 
.léi,'em 
.léirM 
.léi,'et 

Deponent. 

.mtMigther 
..ahligcdar 
..ttMigmer 
"mddigid 
..¢,idigetar 

 3 
 rel 
 rel. 

t57. 
Sg. 1 .cqraimt 
2 .¢'(t'tha 
3 .«arad 
Pl. 1 .car»mis 
2 .«arthae 
3 .carrais 
158. 
ca»Jè 
cafid 
cafimmi 
«arthe 
c a rfi t 
cmfite 

lmper|ect (alw«tys conjunct). 

.suhligimt 
..uidigthea 
.su.hliged 
.suidigmis 
..ddigthe 
.suidigti.ç 



9O 

159 
Sg. 1 .carub 
2 .carè 
3 .carf. 
PI. 1 -ca:tbm 
2 .«mfid 

eonjunct. 
.ldi«iub 
.léh:fe 
.léic.tèa 
.léicfem 
.lébfid 
.léiqtët 

• su Migj'er 
.suM igfider 
.snMigfedar 
• su Migfem m af 
.suid igfid 
.mtMigfetar 

Future Preterite (ahrays conjtmet). 

.h;icfeda 
.ldh'fed 
• Idiçfim mis 
.h;i::tide 
.h:iqfiti.s. 

• s ui, ligfeda 
..uMigfed 
.suid i,.zf m »n; 
.s«Mifide 
.su id ifi tis 

161. 
Sg. 3 carais 
Pl. 3 carsait 
162. 
Sg. 1 .çarus 
2 .carais 
3 .car 
Pl. 1 .carsam. 
2 .carsaid 
3 .car.at 

Preterite (ahsolute). 
léici. 
léic.it 
eon.iunct. 
.léicis 
.léic 
.léi«sem 
.léicMd 
.léic.et 

163. 
Sg. 1 cara 
2 ca 'ae 
3 caraid 
rel. carat 
Pl. 1 carmai 
rel. c¢o'l(te 
2 carthae 
3 cetrait 
rel. caraite 

5UBJUNCTIVE. 
Present (ahsolute). 
léi'e¢t 
léice 
lé/cM 
léi(es 
léi«mi 
léi«me 
léicthe 
leicit 
léi«de, -ire 



91 

i64. conjunct. 
Sg. 1 -cor .ldi« 
2 .('«« rae .léi«e 
3 .ce, fa .léicec, 
PI. 1 .carcnn .léicem 
2 .car(cM .ldi('M 
3 .ca fa t .léice t 

..tddiger 
..uMigther 
..tddigedm" 
.suid i,,fid 
.sm'digetar 

.stddiginn 
..nidithea 
.stthliged 
..uidigmis 
..uMi.lthe 
..tddb.ltis 

Passive : INDICATIVE. 
167 Present, absolute. 
Sg. 3 cartbair léicthir 
tel. carthar léicthcr 
Pl. 3 cartair,-ata5" ldictir,-itir 
rel. cartm',-atar lé[cter,-et(te 
conjunct. 
Sg. 3 .carthar .léicther 
Pl. 3 .carte;-atar .léicter,-eter 

suMi9EEthir 
suhligther 
suMigtir 
stidigter 

.sMdigther 
• suidig tes" 

168. lmperfect (ahvays eonjunct). 
Sg. 3 .carthae .léh'the .stddigthe 
Pl. 3 .cartais .&:i«ts .sm'digti. 



92 

169. Future, absolute. 
Sg. 3 carfidb" léicfidir 
rel. cmfedar léicfed««r 
Pl. 3 carftir léi«:fitir 
tel. cm:fret, -fetar .léiçliler, -fetar 

conjunct. 
Sg. 3 .cafider .léi«:fider 
Pl. 3 .carfite; -fetar .léhfiter, -fetar 

suMigfdb" 
suhtigfedar 
suidigfit5" 
suidigfite; 
-Jëtar 

.suMigfider 
.mddigfi ter, 
-fetar 

170. Future Preterite (always conjuuct). 
Sg. 3 .cmfde .léie./ide 
Pl. 3 .«a:titi. .léh:fitis 
171. Preterite, absolute. 
Sg. 3 carthe léicthe 
Pl. 3 (r'arthni) (léicthi) 
eonjuuet. 
Sg. 3 .c(trad .léiced 
Pl. 3 .cartha .léicthea 

.su id igfid e 
..«uMigfitis 
s.uMigthe 
(mtMigthi) 
.mddiged 
..uidigthea 

Perfect. 
Formed from the pret. by means of fo witb infixed 1»1"o 

nouns of 1st aud 2nd pers. sg. and pl. 
Sg. l ro-m.charad 
2 ro-t.charad 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
172. Present, absolute. 
Sg. 3 «ttrthair Iéb'tbir 
rel carthar Iéi«ther 

Pl. ro-n.enrad 
ro-b.carad 
ro.cc«rtha 

suidigthir 
suidigther 
suMi9tir 
suidigter 

"suidigther 
"mddigter 



93 

173. Preterite 6dways coujuuct). 
Sg. 3 .carthae .léiclhe .subliflhe 
Pl. 3 .carrais .h;i«ti. .sMditi 
174- IMPRATIV (abs. & eonj.). 
Sg. 3 carthar léicthcr mtMigther 
Pl. 3 carter l(i«ter mtidigter 
175. Past Participle Passive. 
carthae léicthe stidigthe 
Participle of Necessity. 
ca rthai léicthi 

sMdi,jthi 
Verbal Noun. 
ca rad léiciad suidigud 
. ca.rtho,-a iéiclheo,-ea suidigtheo,-ea 
Paradigm of Strong verbs. 

Active : INDICATIVE. 
176. Present, a.bsolute. 
B I. B II. B IV. 
Sg. 1 biru gaibim be»aim. 
2 bi»" (beri) gaibi benai 
3 berid gaibid benaid 
rel. beres gaibes be»as 
Pl. 1 bermai gaib»i ben»i 
rcl. ber»ae gaib»e ben»e 
2 berthe gaibthe be»te 
3 berait gaibit be»ait 
rel. bertae gaibte bente 
177. conj unct. 
g 1 "biur .gaibim (.benaim) 
2 .bi»" .gaibi .be»ai 
3 .beir .gaib .ben 
(encl..be) 
t'l. 1 .beram .gaibem. .be»am 
2 .berid .gaibid .benaid 
3 "bera t .gaibet .bena t 

Examples : biru ' I bear,' gaibim ' I take,' benai» ' I 
strike.' 



94 

178. Imperfect (always conjunct). 
Sg. 1 .berimt .9aibimt .benaimt 
2 .bertha (.gaibth ca) .beta 
3 .bered .gaibed .benad 
Pl. 1 .bermis .gaib,nis .bemHs 
2 .bertbe .9aiblbe .beMe 
3 .bertis .gaibti.¢ .be»,tis 

179. Future, absolute. 
Substituting guidim (B III.) and renaim (B IV.) for 

9aibim and benaim. 
Sg. 1 béra gi9.ea (rirea) 
2 bérae (gi9s'i) (rire) 
3 bé»'aid 9igis riri 
tel. béras gges rires 
Pl. 1 bérmai gig.immi (rb'mi) 
rcl. bermae (gig.imme) (rb'me) 
2 bérthae gigeste (rirthe) 
3 bérait gig.it ririt 
tel. bértae gigsite fritte) 

180. Future Preterite (always eonjunct) with ithim for 
benaim. 

Sg. 1 .bérainn .gig.imt (.[..aim,) 
2 .bértha "gi,desta (.[.sta) 
3 .bérad .gig.s.ed .[..ad 
Pl. 1 .bgrmis .gigsimmis (.i..-mai.Q 
2 .bérthe .gigeste (.L.tae) 
3 .bértis .gig.itis .[..tais 



95 

181. Preterite, absolute, with guidbn for bena[m. 

Sg. 1 *bb'ttt 
2 *berli 
3 birt 
l'el. be'tae 
Pl. 1 *berlimmb" 
rel. *bertemmar 
2 *bertithe 
3 *bertir 
l'el. bertar,-atar 

Sg. 1 .bert, .bho't 
2 .birt 
3 .bert 
Pl. 1 .bertanmar 
2 .bertaid 
3 .bertatar 

Sg. 1 
3 
tel. 
PI. 1 
3 
l'el. 

Sg. 1 
2 
3 
Pl. 1 
2 
3 

5UBJ UNCTIVE. 
Present, absolute, with guidim for benaim. 

benaim. 

lies.si 
eisa. 
9e. 
ges'm i 
geste 
ve.s'.sit 
9EEeste (bete) 

(.béu) 
(.biae) 
.bia 
.biam 
«.biai d 
(.bi, t) 
encl. "ber 



96 

t3. 
Sg. 1 .berimt 
"2 .be  't ha 
3 .berad 

Pl. 1 .bermis 
2 .berthe 
3 .bertis 

Preterite (ouly conjunct). 

185. Passive : INDICATIVE. 
Present, absolute. 
Sg. 3 bercb" 9aibtbir benair 
tel. be»'a" 9aibther benar 
t»l. 3 bertair 9aibtir bentir 
tel. bertar 9aibter bentar 
conjunct. 
Sg 3 .berar .9aibther .be»mr 
Pl. 3 .bertar .gaibter,-etar .be»tar 
I86. lmperfect (always conjunct). 



97 

188. Future Preterite (always conjuuct). 
Sg. 3 .bérthe (.gébthe) bethe 
encl..baide 
Pl. 3 .bérti. (.gebti.) bct 

189. Preterite, absolute. 
Sg. 3 brethae gabthae (b[the) 
Pl. 3 brelh,i  gabthai b[thi 
conjlmct. 
S. 3 .breth .gabad .bith 
Pl. 3 .brctha .gablha .belh, 

Subjunctive: present as in Indicative abs. and conj. ; 
preterite as in iml»crf, indicative ; imperative as lu pres. 
indicative conjunct. 
190. Past participle Passive. 
(brethe) encl..berthe (gaibthe) bilhe 

Participle of Necessity. 
(brethi) encl..berthi (gatblhi) bethi 

Verbal Noun. 
breth, brith gabdl béAmm 
G. brilhe gabdlae béimme 

191. The Verb ' to be.' 
The verb has two series of forms: one series contains 
the forms which denote existence--the substantive 
verb ; the other sees is composed of forms whieh are used 
merely to connect subject with predicate--the copula: 
the forons of the copula are always weakly accented (pro- 
clitic). The vcrb is built up by cmploying several diffcrent 
l'oots in the sênse of 'being': thus, thê substantive verl) 
employs thê roots .t5 (Lat. s'tS-re), cl (W. gwel-ed 'to 
see '), bhFt (Skr. bhdc-ati, Gl« :-otat, Lat. fit-i)'to 
corne ' : the copula employs, in addition to bhff and s.t5, the 
g 



9 

Id G. root e.u ' to be ' ; cf. French, Ittliall and C4el'nlan use 
of se troueer, .tar, uld sh'h be.li»den in the sense of 
"being' ; also the difl'erent roots in English ara, be, wa.. 

SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 
INDICATIVE. 
Present from /st««. 
conjunct. 

1 .tdu, .t6, -t{t Pl..tatt» 
f .taaid, .taaith 
2 .toi [.taid, .taad 
3 .td .taat, .tdt 

The usual form is attd, atd<*ad-st55, but the prep. ad 
is dropped when a conjunct particle precedes the verb, e.g. 
Mdt 'in which I ara,' h6-taat 'from which they are.' 
With ol or ht 'than' the following forms are round : sg. 1. 
olddu (old6), 2. olda[ (oltrd), 3. tel. oldaa.s, idaas ; pl., 
3. old5tae (olddta), i»ddtae : the 1st and 2nd sg. olddu, 
oldai may mean either 'than I,' 'than thou,' or 'than 
mine,' 'than thine': an abs. form of the 3rd sg. tdith is 
round in poetry with suffixed 1)ronouns (v. § 87). The 
relative passive form is round written datha" (d = nasalized 
t), e.g.i.s hed dc«thar dom Wh. 21 c 9, dathar dFtn, Wb. 
28d4. 

193. Present from /tcl 
Fil (fel, feil, later rail), tel. file, ,fele, is used for 
ail numbers and persons: _QOl'_igillall_v /1 w§ 
imperative='lo !' a.ld ±hç oldest use is xith sufiàxecï , 
pronouns; e.../il-us 'there are' (lit,, 'behold them'  
'/'he etymology or fil explains the fact that it takes 
the accusative case after it, e.g. i .fil aimsir (N. 
aim.,er)'there is hot a time.' With infixed pronouns: 
e.g. con-dumJël 'so that I ara,' co»-dib.feil 'so that ye 
are,' ci-ni-ri.fil 'though we are hot.' N.B.--nt-s.fil'they 
«tre hot,' |)eside ni-s.tti, 'they ltc«'e hot.' Relative use: 



99 

.fil or file, e.g., a fil 'which is,' .m«d .lïh' 5enlid eter 
baullu 'as there is uuity l»etween meml,evs,' im/. fi'r fi'l 
«tnd ' of the men who are there,' a-rrad .17le «t»tl .om, ' tho 
grace which is in him,' immib remluib fitil ha. 9réin 'iu 
the stars which are al»ove th« sun.' In question and 
allSwel', e.g. in fil{ fil 'Is there ! Ves (therc is).' 

194 

Sg. 1 
3 
|'ci. 
t'l. 1 
re]. 
3 
re]. 

Sg. 3 

Tenses from 
Consuetudinal Present. 

Absolute. 
bhtu 
(b[) 
b[id, -ith 
bi.,. 
b[mmi 
biit 
b[te 

bithir 

('ollj :lllçt. 
.bh/ 
.bi 
• bi (cm'l. -bai) 

• b/rit, .bbtt (em.1. -bOt) 

195. 
S»z. I 
3 

196. 

sg. 1 
3 
tel. 
PI. 1 
Fit|. 

.b[inn 
.b[th 

bia 
biae 
bieM, bied 
bia. 
bemmi 
bethi 
bieit, bict 
bete 

lmperfect. 
Pl. l 
"2 .b[ti. 

Future. 
hot fonnd 
"bict 
"bia 

"bi, m 
"bieid, "bied 
"biat 



10o 

197. Future Preterite (eonjunet ouly) 
Sg. l .beinn. PI..be»nm 
3 .biad .betis 
The iufixcd l,ronouns at'e addd fo thc forms of the 
future of the substautive verl, 1,y means of fo instead of 
no: in the fut. l,reterite they are itfixed I»y either fo or 
no, e.g., fo-m-bi, "I shall have.' r«,-»-bi, d or to-m-bbtd 
'1 should have.' 

198. 

Sg. 1 "bd, encl. -ba 
" -bS, eucl.-ha .baid, eucl.-baid 
3 "bol .bai, encl.-b,« .bdl, r, encl.-batar, 
Passive. 
both. 
Thc only absolute forms occurriug are sg. 3 ho[ 
boie ; pl. 3 b6tar ; pass. bolbae, rel. bolh«t. 

Preterite. 
co,.imct. 
1'1..bS»zar, enel.-bamm«tr 

199. INIPERATIVE. 
Sg. 2 bi b[icl (.bith) 
3 bith, bhl bhtt 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
200. Present. 
Sg. 1 beu, beo (.bé,, beo) 
2 bee 
3 b«ith, beid .bé (encl. -b) 
beth, bed 
rcl. be. 
PI. 1 bemmi .hem (enel. -bain) 
2 herbe .beith, .beid (enel. -bith) 
3 beït .bel (end. -bat) 
rel. bete 

Passive. 
bethir .bether 



101 

201. 
Sg. 
3 
202. 

Preterite. 
1 (.bêbm) I'1..bcmm 
• betha .bethe 
• beth, .bed, encl.-bad .beh: 
Participle of Necessity. 
bMthi. 
Verbal Noun. 
buitb (both, bitb, beitb). (:. buithe. 

2 af, it 
3i. 
rel. as 

TIIE COPUI,A. 
INDICATIVE. 
Present, al»solute. 
Pl. ammi. ammin 
,dib. idib 
it 
atrt, rtt (MI.). 

Peculiar forms of the rel, 3rd sg. and 1,1. are used after 
ci,, ce 'although,' and md, ma ff, e.g. sg. cta-.-u (cesu, 
ma-s-u (massu, ma.'o), in 3II. c[aa, nasa ; pl. 
ce-t-u" (ceto), »m-t-u'. The 1,alatal vowel of , it is pro- 
hal,ly due to their frequent use with the prons, hé, hed. 
204. conjnnct. 
There are two distinct sei'ies of forms riz. (a) those used 
after the negative d,  (b) those used in cases where the 
longer forms of the infixed pronouns would be employed 



102 

lq thc (b) stries the 3rd sg. is solnetimes reduced fo 
c.g. dian-t aimm, and sometimes disappears, e.g. ar5. in, 
aeb. After amal 'as' persons which have no special 
relative forms l,refix m, c.g. sg. 1 and 2 no-n-@, pl. 1 
n«»n-dan, 2 no-n-dad, but 3r, l sg. ,mal 
(lt(I ll. 
After the nentive nd in leniting relative sentenees, s. 8 
»dd, i»1. 8 notat:in mtsalizinl¢ relative sentenees sg. 3 
çe-n 'Mflough uo' mM ma-n 'if no' rd sg. 
The (a) forms are front /.xt wih he exception of the 
3rd sg. where ,[ (geminating)<.nZr<nZsl<%w e.s'l : in 
the (b) forms the -d- is an infied pranoun, and the archaie 
forms -d-em, -d-ed, -d-et show tha they do hot behmg to 
n/sld. ]»u to n/ es. The ehmge in the termination «ff the 
ls pl. gara < t,l is dle to thc influence of thc infixed pro- 
noun of tlw 1st l,l. 

205. 

Consuetudinal Present. 

Only the 3rd sg. bi (with short ï as distinct froln 3rd 
sg. co6. of suhst, verh) ; e.g. ni-pi 91,,'e, ui-l)i clan 'it 
does hot be elear,' 'it. does hot he long,' coin-bi de.g'ciln,l 
so that he beconles a disciple, ('«,m-bi (lia. mdr ' so that 
if becomes a gvcat ear.' 

206. Future. 
absolute, conjunct. 
Sg. 1 5e 
3 bid, bitb -ha, 
rel. be., bas 
Pl. 1 bemmi, bim,, bami 
3 bit -bat. -pat 
rel. beta 
207. Future Preterite. 
Sg. 3. ahs. bed, con.j. -bad,-pad:l,l. 3r,1 conj. 
-pti., with infixêd lle|. l,ronom, ro»di. <*ro-m-bdi.. 



103 

208. 
absolnte. 
4g. 1 ba.a 
2 (bas.a) 
3 ha 
tel. ha 
Pl. 1 (bammar) 
3 bat[r, batar 
tel. b««tar 

Preterite and Imperfect. 
«onjunct. 
-b,a, -psa, 
-b., -po, -bt, 

bonl lna r, -blon nlar 
-b[ar, -plat, -lar, -dar 

c[a (ce) takes the eonjunct forms, e.g., cia-bo, cia-l,tar. 
.qome forms arc mueh disguised owing to phonctie 
changes, e.g. sg. 1 rom bilhbéu where rom=rom-b, 2 
romsa = vo-m-b-.a, 11. 3 romtar, comlar = ro-m-btar, con- 
btar: the -sa of sg. 1 and 2 is the emphatie particle. The 
3rd sg. abs. and eonj. is used also in a conditional sensc. 

209. IMPERATIVE. 

Pl. 1 ban, badn 
Sg. 2 ba 2 bad, bed 
3 bed, bad 3 bat. 

210. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 
absolute conjunct 
Sg. 1 ba -ba 
2 ba -ba 
3 ba (b('t) I-b,-p,-dib,-dip 
rel. bes, bas t-ho, -po 
Pl. 1 not found -ban 
2 bede -bad 
3 hot found -bat 
rel. bete, beta, bata. 

Before the conjunct forms nani and ara n usually become 
shortened fo main, af ', e.g. main-ha, arm-ba <arn-ba ; 



104 

l,efore the 3rd sg. ara" becomes ari n, e.g. arimp, ab'ndip 
< %drin-p, arin-dip : co" becomes coin except before 3rd 
sg. e.g. tomba, combad, and the forms may be writtcn 
phonetically, e.g. comman=com-ban. The form of the 
3rd sg. -dib, -d[p is used after ara", fo", i ' 'in which,' 
and sometimes after in (interl'og,) and «« e.g. arn-dip, 
r,m-dib, in-dib, in-dip, m,-dip; the form -b, -p is used 
after fo, h, )d, m, ce (interrog.) and serhi 'whoever,' 
e.g. rob, top; imb, imp ; db, dp ; mb, )mip ; ,'lb, 
• .echip: further vo-po, cor-bu <¢co"-ro-bu, d-bo; with 
bds 'pcrhaps,' bé.s.-q bé.«-o: with cia 'although,' and ma 
"if' s.g. 3 «hl, «ith, ,'ed, ceith, »md, pl. 3 oit, mat. 

211. 
a|»solute 
Sg. I hot round 
2 hot round 
re.}bid, bed, bad 
Pl. 1 bemmi.% bimmis 
3 bitis, betis 

Preterite. 
conjuuct 
-bin, -benn 
-ptha 
-bad, -bed 
-bdi.% -pti.', (-d i.% -ti.). 

Examples : com-bin or commin, ni-ptha main-bad, 
commimmi& coni-pt, comtis, airmdis or ardis.: with 
and ma sg. 3 cid, mad, pl. 3 mati.s.. 

212. Other compounds from 4/sui. 
(ar-td) rel. ara-thd ' which is left ;' d[-td = Lat. distare 
'stands apart,' 'differs,' e.g. dl-taam gl. on c,li:ta»ms,. 
dl-thdt ' they do hot difl'er ': te.,.-ta < do.e.'-ta lS wantng,' 
• is lacking.' 

213. Further Forms used as Verbs of Existence. 

1. Adcomnicc < Sad-co,n-dn-icc (lit. 'it happened') used 
as copula: this form is used with infixed pronouus to 
express existence, e.g. ,_etanta atomchomnaic-se ( <  ad- 
dom-chom-n-ic) 'I ara Setanta': (later) atancomnaig 'we 
are.' 



1()5 

2. Dicoissin, docoissin: au impcrsomd form used 
relatively in thc sense of 'is,' 'exits' (subst. verb), e.g. 
a,,l do-n-coi.in 'as we are' ,rnab tih'b (',»actib 
dic]«,i.s[n in, nim ' for all the powcrs that exist in hcaven,' 
«««1 ram »wh't dt«lo[.Mn 'every 1,art of strength that 
therc is,' «i« lb" ba[rd d,»«u/«/n 'how mauy (kinds of) 
bards arc thcre ?' 
3. Dixnigur<*di-co2Mn-[gur: a dcponent formed from 
dS'oi.sh; it is uscd both as subst, verb and copula, e.g. 
in «l 'mged, r ' ( hwst ) 
ne«h 'that there is 
' wh» thou art' (as copula). 
4. ondgab: .o-prcterite of gaibl» with infixcd l,ro- 
noun 3 sg. n. (as subst, verb): form used in mtsa]iziug 
relative sentences, e.g. cé[n 'o(d).g««bus i carca[r 'while 
I ara in prison,' amal rond.gab 
gabsat ' it is clcar th:tt thcy are.' 

214. DEFECTIVE VEIB. 
Therc are several verbs which, like the verb 'to 
construet th«ir forms from more thau one foot: cf. Lat. 
jëro, hdi, lahtm ; Gk. çép(o, oi'o-o,. çireyr,t ; Eug. go, cent. 
the following list they are arranged in «dphaletical order 
accordiug to the initial letter of their present stems. 
bertd 'bears': as a simplc verb bas no fo- forms, it 
emldoys iustead a weak verb ro.uccni, 'u«eai, pl..rm'at, 
pret. id. sg. 1 ro.tdec[u.u. 3 ro.«iee, ro.tee, .rtec, I d. .re.at, 
1,ass. 'o.cad, .r«ed, pl. .o.uctha, 'tctIa, subj..rcca.. 
l»ret, sul»j, l)ass..ructh««e, I d. "rucai. : also in the compouud 
trem[.betr ' bears over,' fo- pret. pass. tremi.rw«d. 
d(,.beir ' brings,' 'gives' : l»rototon..tabai% fut. tibéra 
ro-forms, (a) in the sense of 'bring,' d,,-uccai, twcai, pass. 
.t«cth«r, lwct. iud. dwdc, hdcc, tuc, l,l. t«csot, pass. 
tu«ad, subj..t«cca, imp. t«ic : (b) in the seuse of 'give,' 
do.rati, l)t, iud. sg. 1 do.ratu.', 2 do.ratai., 3 
prototon..tarot, pl. 1 tb).r«t.am, 2 (lo.raL'id, 3 d«,.ratsat 
prototou..tart.'at and .t««rti..«et, pass. do.ratad : l«'ototon. 



106 

• t«tvd«td, pl. do.»'atct, prototon..t«t»'to, suhj. do.rrtta, pss 
• ta»'ta»': the eOmlotmds c«..bei»" alld a»'.bei»" have fo- forlns 
ad-ci 'sees' : lwototon..ab'ci, sg. 1 ad.e:u, 1,l. 
pass. ad.cilhe»', lwotoon. -,««o.ttt»', fu. (ad.eh'bi), pass. 
ad.«irhe.t«t', lwe$. pass. c«l.,'e.., subj. ad.eea»', 3 lwototon. 
• accorda»" ('nce«lha»'), pass. ad.,'ethe»', l,rogoton. 
preg. subj. ,d.eeth (.ced) : lu t.he l,ret, act.. for the »'o- form 
ig employs /derk, ad.eon-dirŒE, lmvrative pret., eon.o«eoe, 
pres. laSS, with »'o- of possibility ad.»'o-d«t»'c¢t»': do.éi-ci 
<de.en-ei 'looks at.' has the usual vo-fol'ms, e.g. pret. 
3rd pl. d,,.»'-éeato»', sulO. sg. 2 
<fNtb-,d-ci 'hopes" h«s movable ».o, e.g. pret. 3rd 1,1. 
.i.'a«al¢r', nL».u .l)'e«ra«httr. 
• cuiretnr ' purs ' 'throws' : snbj..coratha»', imp. 
2 cuirthe and cuire, pl. eui'kl; the absolute fovm 
SUlllied by Jb.ceird (v. Table of strong" vorbs) : the 'o- 
fol'ms are SUlplie«l by v-I-, e.g. preg. iml. 'o-l«, lWototou. 
• 'Cdae, pl..».al«at, 'ol.c«t, pss. »'a.laod, lwototou. 
• 'olad, sulO. sg. I -'aL 3 .rela : the eoml,ound do.cui»'etha" 
in the sense 'takcs to himself,' ' adopts,' has ro-forms 
fug. e.g. do.»'o-chui»'semma»', do.eui»'tf««»', but in the sense 
' tlwows aw«y' perf. pass. do.»'alad, fng. preg. do.fo[ehved 
< do'f,-eieh »'ed (fo.ceird). 
.to.gnib ' fids ': sulti..»gaba, fug. fi»géba ; but pret. 
f».funir, l,rotoon. «ei»', pss..tb'j)'[th, prototon..f'[th. 
con.ic'is l)le,' in ghe fol'ms in whieh the stem loses 
ghe principal eeeng icc gives place go /ong- and con. to 
coin., e.g. pres. iu«l. sg. 1 con.icimm, 3 con.iec, pl. eon.eeat, 
prototon, sg. 1 .ctt»grtim (.cumctt), 3 
pl..çttntgal , .eumeat:fut. sg. 1 cot'b'td), prototon, 
gub, fut.. lweg. «on.iefi'd, prototon "cumeaibed; lWeg. con- 
dnaeui»', prototon. .ço[ntnctett[': subi. con.[, lwototon, 
• cumŒEi, .cure, pre. pl. 1 eon.Lmi., protoou..cuimsimm[.: 
do.ecmning< to-en-ço»t-ong- ' happeus' nmkes 
pret. do.eemoi.ed; fn'.comnncuir 'ha eome about," sul 6. 
pret.. 



ithid "eats': suhj..e.tar, fut. pret. pl. 3 .[.s'tm., l,art 
pass. ei«.e, «/ed- : pret...dol, .duaid, pl. 3 do.]çot««r. 
jed, redupl. 
téit, conj..tdt: ff'oto x/steitlh l,res, sg. 1 "ti««gu, .t[ag, 
I. 3 ti(«gait, .t[agat, impf..téged, pres. pass..t[agar, iml,. 
sg. l t[ag, t[acl k,l. 1 t[ogc«m, 3 t[agat, p«tss, tiagor, suli. 
téis, .tdi, pl. t[a.ctt, In'et. suhj..tdsed: /reg. imp. sg. "2 
eirg, pl. "2 (later) ertlid  fut..rega, .riga, fut. In'et..regad : 
 lud (cf. (41« ,0o,), pret. luid, pl. lotar: /ei (cf. (k. 
e, I,at. e-o, Skr. ê-mi), pass. etlc«e: the r«»forms are 
construeted ff'oto x/e¢l with the preps, de and «o,u, suli. 
and fut. do.ço[ *dç.cnm-zod.st, prototou..d««ha, .di«l, 
"dig, pl. 1 .deçh.««u, pret. subi. and fut. pl. do.co[st, 
prototon..dech.aiti., .di«h«it, pret. irai. sz. 1 and 2 
do.cood, "cood, prototon..decluul, 3 d«.«o)?l, prototon. 
• deçhuid, pl. 1 .de«lu»uuar, 2 ,.digtitl, 3 .d«m,tar, 
tut: the eompolmd do.tét cornes' is eonjugated like 
the simple rerb, but. the prototon, forms Beeome sg. 1 
.ta[g, .tdey, 3 .tait, p! .t««[g««t, sub. sg. 1 .rai.s., 3 .lai, fut. 
• terg«t, .tirga, pret. ind. pl..tultatar; fo- forms prototon. 
pre. sg. 1 .tuid«'lted, pl..tm'dçltetor, sul{i, .tuidt, pret. 
• tuidçlttsed, pl. 1 .tmlte.mct[ < .tm'ddte.s.ucu%: imp. 
9 toit (./retlt-), Velsh tçred. Further eompounds are 
 [td-od-tét goes h,' pres. pl. 3 i.otgat, fu. as in sult. 
pl. 3 i.ot.at, mrr. ln'e, i.olaid, perf. in.ralaid ; 
goes round,' nm'r. pret. pl. 3 rel. [mme-lotar, perf. pi. 3 
[m-ruldatar, fut. wih çom- sg. 3 cou.imtltae;cot.{-tét 
< com-eu-tét 'is indulgent to,' prototou..coétt pl. '2 
con.éitgid, imp. sg. 3 .coméitged, suivi, sg. "2 
3 cou.éit: for-tét 'helps' and reui.tét goes belote, are 
eonjugated like the silnple verh. 
falls : ln'oOoton .luit, pl..tuitet, 
do.tuit, hter dodt, ' 
pass .tuiter, suli, sg. 1 do.ro-tluu.so, 3 .totl, pl. 1 .tor- 
th.em, 3 .todsat, .totsat, fuL. do.toetl : pi'et, formed ff'oto 
do.cer, with fo, do.ro-cloir, prototon..torcIl(tr, .torcIla[r. 



108 



109 



110 



111 



112 

VIII.--THE PREPOSITIONS. 
215. The f,,'ms of some prel,osilsi«ms vary accor, ling to 
position (i.e. aeeented or unaeeented). Thurneysen {Hh. 
. 812) distingnishes four principal positions: 
A aeeented, eompounded with nouns or verbs. 
B unaeeented, proelitie belote a dcuteroton, verb. form. 
C unaccented, proclitic belote their case. 
D accented, with suttixed personal l)ronouns. 
Similarity of function or accentuation has caused nlany 
aualogical changes, D heing influenced hy C, A (in verl)al 
coml)ounds) by B, and B by C. 
216. ad 'to,' Lat. 
A. ad (=«t): before vowels and origiual -g (which 
1)ccomes ]), e  ,d-amrae ' wondcrful.' do.ad-bat 'shews': 
the d hecomes assimilated to b, c, 
< «td-bai,j (b,mid ' rêaps') ' ripe,' .acci < Sad-cl ' secs.' 
«ttai,t (t=d) <ad-d«tim 'concedes,' ocre (ad-g«tire 
' suing,' ammt.  ad-me.. ' attempt,' do«tis.elbi < 'ad- 
selbi'assigns,' «ttr«& <«td-tveb 'dwelling': before l, , 
it hecomes d, e.g. f,).dlgim <.«td-logim 'l cast down," 
5i,.em < ad-ness- ' accusation,' «'t»'(t»  ad-r[m- ' 1111111- 
ber': td+od >(tud in atdbirt (A. s.u.) 'sacrifice' (from 
«td.opuir <  «td-od-ber-) later edbavt, idbart. 
B. ad : even 1)efore consonants, e.g. ad.rirai 'reckons, 
ad.cobva ' wishes,' ad.midctbct v ' attemps,' the assimilation 
of «td + s >«ts. has caused it o become confused with the 
prep. «t.¢ (e.s), hence forms like «ts.roilli heside ad.roilli; 
before the infixed pron. 3rd. sg. in relative construction 
«t. frequently replaces -d, e.g. tt.u.id-ci(ttl 
C. D. ad is only used in nomiual and verhal compomd, 
before nomes and suffixed pronoms it is replaced by 
(v § 222). 
217. air, (er, lr, &c.) Lat. p,,r-, Gk. r,«.og, r, dO. 
A. «tir with palata! »" or er, b" with Unl)alatal ', e.g. 
airdivc or erdrtirc êonspicuons, falnolls': before 



113 

usually af, e.g. t-ar-'-«hct but also t-air-r-cher 'has beeu 
prophcsied" ; before od aud.f» it beeolues ara'-, e.g. am't«rau 
<  air-od- or airç/,- +,re..- 'rtmnin, baste.' 
B. af, e.g. af.if ' finds,' ar'ffair ' forbids,' ar.beir ' ex- 
lwesses'; in l'elative sentcnces usually ara, e.g. ara-thd 
' whieh is left..' 
C a«', with the dative nd aeeustive. 
D. only with the aceustive ; for fOrlnS see  90. 
217a meanins of ar. 
(a) before, e.g..r sil'bcfol'e the eye,' af mcmmtin 
l)efol'e tlle mimi.' 
(5) for, e.g. af /Sff 'for reward,' ,r «httiri 'for a 
1[1.O[]1. ' 
(«) on account of, e.g. af formait 'on accomt of envy,' 
af (']iroi«h cr[st 'on accouut of the c1"o88 o[ Christ,' airi 
on that account.' 
(d) trom, e.g. 'oh'ad af ffutw,«ht 'deliverance [rom 
dungcr,' arcelith af chSch 'ye Lke awy front every ont.' 
(c) in the place o[, 'epre.entinff, e.g. dcich m/li bria- 
thar af labrad ilbélre, '"ten thousand words" for 
"speaking nmny tongues".' 
218. atth 'a«dn, ve-' l,at. ,t, Wclsh at. 
A. ait/{ and ,bi" : e.g. aithffte or ,Mff,e ' recognition' ; 
s-metimes aih, ad hefore a nOn-l»alatal anlaut, e.g. ath- 
ch,,»t,«.h 'reconstruction,' t-tdh-Sir ' hlamc'; with assimi- 
lati«»n lefi,re a following dental at, irbert aith-to-ah'- 
bert : an older rotin occurs in aithe-sc 'answer,' cf: (btulish 
Ate-ffnatm. 
B. ad, e.g. ad.ffainemmar 'we are I»o]'n again'; with 
ssimilation «dctirbir < * aith-to««5"-bir. 
C. D. do hot occur. 

219 «en ' without.' 
C. with accusative (lelfitillg), e.g. ce»t chaille 'without a, 
veiI.' 
D. with suflixed pronouns, see§ 89. 
h 



114 

219a. further meanings of cen. 
(et) apart from, e.g. ,16 brithem 
is « judge there «q}art, fvom thee.' 
(b) hot, wit, h  verbal nouu, e.g. ce»t d[lfftd ' 
forgive,' cent chomalad 'no to fuifil.' 
2. cenmtth ' except., besicles.' 
This is  compouud of ce»t in the form cemni (cf. 
ve»d, tvemi) + -t6 ' is.' 
C. with aceusat, ive: «e»tmitl«[ étcad 'excep lus,' 
«'e»mith« in »-ai»o»dd ' exeept the uom.,' also cenmath6, 
«'e»m6, e.g. cemath6 i» tegdais -ucut 'hesides yonder 
bouse,' ce»m6 i» 
221. cét- 'with,' Gk. «r6, Welsh 
Only in compounds with the substantive verb. 
A. «ét-, e.g. cdtbdd <  cét-b-uith ' sense,' (Welsh catfod). 
B. ceto, cit,, e.g. ceta.bl 'perceires, experiences,' perf. 
g. 1 cit,.ro-ba. 
222. co, Welsh py. 
C. co u (cu) with accusative, e.g. co-llae 'until he day.' 
«ossb ' to the.' 
D. see89. A.B. replaced hy 
2a. meanings of co. 
(a) until, e.g. co Cvist ' until Christ,' cossa laa-sa ' until 
this day.' 
(b) to, e.g. d t&'t co le»" »i-aile 'goes hot to anot.her 
man,' dohfad cuc,n» 'tiret he would corne to us.' 
(c) durntton, e.g. cid co h-6i»" ' even for an hour.' 
(d) extent, e.g.i. «o bi osbévam a aill 'it is unto 
stupidity that we shall say something else.' 
2. coin 'with,' Lat. coin-, «o-, 
A. coin (» =t): before vowels aud /, z, v; sometimes 
,¢m when the following vowel is  e, or lt, e.g. com-oiqe 

' there 
no to 



' advice,' «omal»milhir ' fulfils,' ctim-re«h 'i,ond,' 
' l,ower,' ««mta,'h <*com-«d-d,«b 'i,uihling' : com-imm 
bccomes culture, e.g. «omtbe«bt 'aecomr, anyin#,' 
< -ço»-e»ta ' protect,' «om-im,-air«ide ' «ompetens' is a 
llew formatiol. 
Before the other cosonants «o»t (coin hef. b): e.g. «ombach 
bath ' in'eaking," (y.n. of cowbobg), comlelg 'compu'ison,' 
«onff»t(¢m "helps.' 
Before c and t : co ', e.g. corad (SOmlded co-) < 
' warfare,' c¢trt««s (Somlded r,d-) 
«oct«rt <*coin- cert ' correct '.' ; hefore 
<*com-.amil 'like'; beforc f (original L«): co, ct«, with 
loss of m, eg. ad.ctaid<*.com-«hl-'has tohl,' 
<*com-ytid-'bas gone," but also b 
< com:fi¢. "conscience,' c,baid <*com-fid ' harmouious.' 
lu htter eompouuds the form con" is found belote ail con- 
souants exeel,t m and b, e.g. «om-thitdl 'ga.thering,' 
«om-cb6tbttid " cousetsus,' co-.q«itlig,d 'composition," the 
lenition is analogicl. 
B. co»t : corairleci 'l,ernits,' cot.boitg ' i,reaks,' 
• certat 'they correct,' co»t.d 'seeks.' 
l" 
C. co" (ct) with datire, e.g. co »-a«e«rbi' with »tteress, 
co fiilti ( f= ff) " with joy.' 
D. it is hot joiued fo suxed l,ronouns; ifs l,laee is 
supplied by la. 
2. di, de. I.at. de. 
A. dï belote cousonauts (de 1,efore nOn-l,alatal ch and 
1,efore '(o) ), e.g. d(-gal ' vengeance,' di-thrt«b ' wilderness,' 
but de-chor " difl'erence,' dermat < çde-ro-n6t ' forgetting,' 
di hefore vowels, e.g. di-tdl 'deelension,' dg in later 
eoinings as equivalettts for Lat. e.g. dé-aimeicbtech 
'dcuominativum,' de-chom.thligtbi 'deeoml,osita': d belote 
tç e.g. dé«ce (di-en-), .d6rig (di-ess-), but d[titt <*di-étitt : 
with fo it beeomes tl <*de-yo, but also remains as in 
di«tag (di:fo--tig-) possibly after the analogy of di-«d-as 
in di«p,rt <*di-t¢d-be»'t. 



116 

B. d,,, dt: e.g. do.gJK 'd,es,' d,».ella 'dceliues,' 
mtch ' I wash off' but also as in 
• rogb,d, de.mcccim, di.mec«ither beside do.mmeiccithcr. 
C di, de, e.g. di ,'horp 'de corpore,' de Ittdé[b 'of the 
3ews ; also as iu B, e.g. bec»-do [d ' little o[ peaee.' 
D. sce  
224a meanngs oï 
(et) as ablatve, e.g. di ,.«««h leith ' ff'oto ecry side,' 
po.wi 'from thc positive.' 
(b) origan or materal, e.g.i. di 
cborc,,' btide 'it is from a plan$ that the yellow purple 
lli«t [t. ' 
(e} concerninK, e.g. di ch«r, chtr«ib 'ahou Ietters.' 
di htitbitt brdtho ' «ouceruiug the day of judDnent.' 
(d) partitive Kenitive, c.. itt[to.c]treitjèddiib 'he of 
them who slmuld believe." i bec« prid«himme-ni di 
Dwe 'i is little we p'each o[ the msteries of (lod' di 
«bti5 do Thit 'Titus ,,-as of the Gentiles,' 
di m«id dmb ' lle llas giveu us ranch of good.' 
(e) causal, e.g. di bar n-lt'e 'because of yonr salvation,' 
ter »t,pttt toir.i«'h dLm-«'htimreffaib-se 'lest they be sad 
because of my 
(.f) instrumentai, e.g. «,,-tob-.e«l{lide»" di 
will I»e eorreeted by a correction.' di 
the fruit of out hands,' for «le with the eompanttie of adjs 
v.  ïT. 
225. ectr 'outside,' lat. 
A. only in nominal eOml.mnds, e.g. 
' «dienigcua, uit-laurier.' 
G. with accus«ti'e, e.g. "Fur. 10s, 
gl. e,'bt¢t»" comtirbirt mbitth l»e«'th,e hirobamm,r ' out- 
side the pr.tice of the sins wherein wc had been,' 
'e«]tt " outside thc la'.' 
Also with aecusative s-echtar (motion outwards), e.. 
set'btar it «h'gdai. (teld, i.) 'out o[ the h,use.' 
D. uor found. 



117 

226. ess 
A. es- (c..-) before vowels Uld c, s, 1, e.a'. es.s-éire 
,]'e8IIl'l'ectio] 1' 
l,OW ont '.' t-cs-ta 
of B, e.g. a[.mH., .aisudet aftev the 
Befin'e the other eonsomt.ts t,ks is reduced to «ek and 
the uHal phonet.ic changes fi,llow: e.g. with ainfil:ttion 
to foilowing voiced stol,s, 
Q«rt (p=bb) <«ek-bert 
beeomes tç 
"weak,' tzrh'« 'paymeHt." IH latcr formatioHs es-, e.ff. 
cs-b,e like t-c«-bui[h ri'oto te.si,. <w-rç«h[,id 'exlex.' 
. ets- (,.s-), c.g. as.beir ' sys,' 
agTŒEEiH,' <ts.r<'+t pays ohé: tel. somctimcs t«..a- whieh 
Sl.,reads te» 
is fre,0mntly 
stead .f .tir <-ek-bir 'thou sayest': lwfiwe infixed prons. 
with d- + eks becomes t[ (add) by ssimilatim e],'.v-d- > eff-d- 
>edd-> l,v-clitic «¢dd-, thus coineiding with the forms 
from tul, hence c.nfusion of forms as «¢..s'hl (tel.) for adhl. 
C. a : befin'e a notre in the dtive, e.g. t« oen[u (prou. 
< hca[u) ' ex unitate,' alla[in ' fr<,m (the) Latin," 
',ut of the midsC : ass bcfore l,roclit, ies as the art. and 
prons., e.g. tts mo chuimriib 'out of my bouds,' ,s. a 
th6ib out of his side,' as i»,l Jëtarlt+h'i ' out of the Old 
Testament,' as cech .s.ét 'from every ro<l.' 
D. see  88. The form as.a « used with comparatives 
(v.  77) is probably 
tlSstl-Illlç.S<l (Vb. 30 c 25)would mean lit. 'tley will 
heeome worse out c,f their worse' (Bergin). 

227. 

eter, etar, I,t.. 

A. elar hefore ('oll.qOllHIItS, e.g. el.r-,J»W 'kllowledge,' 
etav-t.ert (twice eter-) ' illterlwetation" : in later glosses a|so 
]eniting. e.g. elrtr-th«dhai.t 'dowHfall" I,cftn'e a vowel 
«tf- in «lr-.nt¢wh " i}termittet." 



ll,q 

B. usmdly cte,; later ctb', rarely i[ir, e.g. c[er.ccr[rr 
' interl,rets,' etiv.]én ' I reeoguised' : l,efore iufixed ],r, ms. 
C. with accusative, cicr, iter, ctb', later et«r, 
D. see+ Sg: with imm, i.»a t-etor, immcet.r 'in 
turn.' 
227a. meanins ot etnr. 
(.) between, c.g. etev Di. oet«. d.i.e "hctween 
an,I man.' de«h.v etev c, oTm temdi  corlm talmamlt 
' diflwence 1,etween hcavculy b.dies and earthly 1,odies.' 
(b) amont, e.g. ,;edn elev b,tttllt« 'unity 
hors,' cer taith 'among iay-fo]k.' 
(c) bot C..ml), e.g. cicr ,,[r  d,,ir, c'ter m.9 3 «omdid 
' 1,oth frce and tmfr«e, both serrant and 
(d) at ail..mol d bimmi. .lift d ctir "as if we were 
hot worth anything a ail." 

228. flad 'in l,rc.sence t,f,' ( x ! tM-) cf. Eu. t«itme.,'.. 
C. [iad', with dative, e.g..[ctd ,'hd,'h 'in the 1,rêsence 
of ail," fhtd d,»fidb 'l»cfore men' : later with accuative e.g_ 
jïctd .[t 'l»cfove kings." 
D. with suttixed pro,s, pl. 2 .ïadib. 3 

229. fo 
A. Jb',./¢'. belote consonants, e.g. )b-«hvai,'c "reward," 
fit-(lnmai "deep': in inlaut after «,d, d-b-l,m (b=) 
+d:l;,-I,m "ready.' 
Before vowels fi»+o >fil, flta ; fo+rt >.1; : fo+i 
e> .lb/, ff;e; e.g'. 
.[bimlel < .lb-imt-, 
remains ],efore a v.wcl, e.g'. 
mare- ' su]@gatiou." 
O in/to the disal,l,caranec of lcnitcd f in I,rototon. forms 
iike .t«,irc, "immol,yi (deuteroton. d,,.fitoirc, im'2bbgi) 
sometimcs al,l,ears atmlogieally in deuteron, forms, e.« 
do-d'2bgnd instead of md.to9,,l ' who ued to swear it, 
dc2/,i[ instead of do.t,it ' falis.' 



119 

B. let..fit : e.g. fo.daim ' suflrs,' f,,]èra ' prel,ares," 
jb.etcetnim 'succiuo' ; 1,efore a vowel sometimes as in A,. 
e.g..I?cab for .tb.dcab. 
C..lb', fit" with dative and a«eusative, e.g. (with da. 
.lo-cketor at once, Jo pheccetd uuder sm, (with 
aee.) .Ib .machtu ' under eommauds.' With the ar. Jbn, 
Jhn, A. n. ta, A. 1,1. Jbnm. 

D. see § 90. 

229a. meanin¢s of l'o. 
(re) with aec. motion towards, or into, e.g. re teckt fa 
batk[s ' I»ef«we ('mning tmder I»ptism,' intl téte jb recht n- 
imdibe ' he who g,)es tre,let the law of circumeision.' 
(b) with dat. 'under," e.g.Jb et cko.saib ' tmder his feet," 
Jb detd 'at last': for use with uumerals v.  82. 

230. l'or <*»ci»er, (;k. ,r.p, Lat. s»«per. 
A..fb»" (fro') before both vowels aud consonants, in later 
glosses with lenitiou as in Jbr-ckem« 'end.' 
B. Jbr, fitr, fit»', e.g. Jbr.tdt, fitr'cuimsiti, fitr.aitk- 
minter. 
C. jbr (or) with dative nd aeeus«tiva : D. v.  90. 
The regular develol,lllell uper> ter is found in Gaulish 
Uer-cingetorix, but lu Welsh and Breton gof and Irish 
fJ»" the vowel has ehanged to o under the influence of go-,fo. 

meanings of for 
230a. XVith aecusative. 
(et) beyond, e.g. nach-a-telcM fttirib 'do not let them 
(go) past you.' 
(b) upon (wih sense of dece»ding upon), usually with 
do.biur, e.g. do.beir d[ail brt ' infliets pmlishment upon 
thee,' similarly do.beir maldackti», dimi«cim, breitk, 
lbr 



120 

(c) With verbs of motiou .r implying motion to fidicate 
terminus, e.g. tecbt imm," c,n'p j;,»" wm "to go in out 
body t heaveu,' uI .«». cuoirl lmrebe d,.coid " hot on a 
diucesau visitatiuc has he go,e': similarly point of attack, 
e.g. /eb,hl i .¢rol ./br ctréli "«,e sçhool will attack 
another." 

231. frith <*£«.'t, Lat. verlere, «er.us, Eng. -war, l.,. 
A..I)'ith (ff'M) lwfl,re xox els, e.g..l)'ith«»r,',m ' ofluce,' 
.l'id-,irced 3rd sg. irai,. : with a iw«l,osition heg'iuning with 
a vowel it c¢ales«es in the form ,fffi'e.s.-, c.g..I'e.s.e«iu < .l)'ith- 
«td-ce.qiu. Belote eonsonants, the fimd deutal assimilates 
to the eonsouau ot thc anlaut, e.g.fi'ecre (ç = ) < fi'ith- 
ab'e ' auswcr,' fi'ec»d, irc < fi'ith-cau-der« ' l,resent' : 
a  later stage.l)'ith remains mchaued hefore consouants 
and causes lenition, e.g..l)'itb-cbathu9ud ' op-pugnatio.' 
B. fri., ./)'i.% e.g..t)'is-aççot 'they hope,' fri..9air 
' allSWel's.' 
C. ri'{', (somctimes ri=ff'i) with aeeusative, e.g. 

D. see § 89. 

231a. meanings of frith 
(.) to(vards), e.g. do-c«t««r .l'«i t,l« i beth« 'they a'e 
gonc to the desircs of the worhl," fi'i ddicsin m««ith 'to- 
wards seeing good." 
(b) for (pmT»o.e), e.gç fri rmutach -ecol..o 'for the 
edification of the Church," fi'i biathtd a Jbrritl, ide 'for 
the SUl,pOrt of thc teachers.' 



121 

(,') attitude to,vards, e.g. bad J',,irr«ch ,'d«h fri alaile 
'let every o.e I,e g'e.tle t,wards the other,' t «6re d«ib 
.ri'lb-si ' it is l,eace t, them towards you.' 
(d) against, e.g. »ri a«.,e tuidechl fi'i h,il I)é ' it is 
easy to g» agai.st the will of (o(],' btl t',,ttr»ttt.w do. 
9»dlber fi'iu-sm 'the si. that, is eommitted agains them.' 
(e) texl,ress similaritydissimilarity,twcontrariety, 
e.g. c«,ml./)'i cc¢hir 'like unto a I,east.' ct,[tlrmle fi'i 
" t,l»l,OSed to I t«l,' samaltir .]li laithe ' i • COml,al"ed 
day,' a dechttr.l)'i sactrht .[ëtarlù'«e 'his diflk.rewe fr«,m 
the l»riesls of the ohl law." 
(j') along vith, e.g. «, r«,.r¢lmlom ¢t «rpc fi'i 
'that we lmty shal'e his heritage ilh Christ,' 
" ,wks toethcr with. helps." 
() with='frt,m', sctrtthl.l)'i 'parts with," af ,tt«h-it- 
ritd«trpillwr .[)'ll'l .[)'Vl'tll 'lest thou lw east away from 
thc righl couscss.' 
(b) to, witl verbs t,f ,ddre.ssitg. tt«[th'lff, ffl'rt'nff, hk'tet- 
l'lty, e.g. tX .ri'lu a-bcr«tr 'it is to them is said,' 
be»'lh«tr flumen fl'is. ' tiret jhtmcn is added toit," 
.[).is« ro.airplhtt 'as i is to him that they have 1,eeu 
trusted,' Cl.s-et j)'isil Drecepl 'le them listen to the 
preachmg. 
(i) with reterence to, e.g. m'./)-tX, ru.«bdt 'it was 
with reference toit tha it was sung,' sttin J)'i cttlh sttin J)'i 
s«or ' diflbren for I,ttle, diflçren$ f,w unyoking.' 
(j) at, in, e.g. fii dei 'in the day rime." ,t[ bethe fi'i 
tt acre 'ye should no he COml,[aining of i (lit. 'at its 
eoml,laini.g),' .fi'i debuid ' ai trife." 



122 

The endiug in [«tf-mi is l,rol»al»ly aftcr the analogy of 
verni. 
(2. [or ' with dative e.g. [cr wdli,j:¢d, htr 
D. see § 88. 

282a. meanlngs of far. 
(a) after (of tiret), e.g. irtr ve..éir,jtt 'after rcsurrec- 
tion,' [rtr m-br«ithiu.q 'after haptism.' 
(b) along, e.g. int tiste it, r.it Œ«mim 'the water 
along thc saud.' 
(c) accordin to, e.g. farsi, dhud 'according to the 
law,'/or «'olitn 'according to the flesh." 
2. imm. imb:%&hi, ;k. dp.6;, Lat. amb-. 
A. the ohler form imb is frequently retained hefore 
v.wels, ./ r, e.g. imb-echt,'ach 'exteriov,' imb-rddud 'medi- 
tatiott,' imbide<imb-fi.the 'hedged in:' imb+., beeoms 
imp, e.g. imi»td<imb-.oud 'turnitg': befove eonsonant 
ira(m)', e.g. im-chdinti ' mutual eomplaints,' im-thrgnugm! 
eonfirmng. 
B. ira(m), rel. imme, ira»m, e.g. im.rddi 'meditates,' 
ira.soi 'tre'us,' imme.rddi or imm,.rddi 'who meditates.' 
C ira(m)' with accusafive e.g. ira chemt a .qacardd 
'avound the head of the l,riests." 
D. see  89. 

233a. meanin's of imm. 
(««) round about, c.g. cri.s.« J''ie immib 'a girdle of 
truth around you," ira «hem "around the head.' 
(b) concerning, c.g. ira (lelhidn«o 'eoncevninganxietics' 
,t-,..bit«v i,t cho.mtdiu« ira! fir,lni..i 'what I sy con- 
cerfing the likeness of the testimony.' 
(c) for (with verl,s of 
mit bidbethid '(we gvoau) 
geis.s cdçh imm-¢t-eh,molmd 'when thou heeechet every- 
one for its fulfilment. 



234. In, lnd < " et, ed, e»,d, Gk, 1, 1'1, l,at. b,, i]ldl¢-. 
A Bcfore vowcls usually iml., e.g. iml-avbe 'exlmlsion," i»,d-o«bSl ' glory,' l,ut also lu, e.g. do'i»-6-1a ' collects.' 
Before cousonants e», and i»t" (i»d'), e.g. e»t»e 'cog- 
nitiou': before « and t e» becomes tç e.g. «,re.d-ter <Sco- 
e»t-tdt 'conuivcs at.': d,».éci <Sdo-e»-ci 'looks at'; thcn is 
assimilated to l, v, «, e.g. ellacb <:*e»da('h "mtit, n.' eb'red 
(G. of eb'r 'warrior who fights from :r chariot ") < 
de..id <Sd-e»-id 'lins sat down': beforc « the e is short 
evmaiy <e»-«'om-,my-, lwol»al»ly aftcr thc au«dogy 
colupounds with thc form i», which la;tre short i like 
tim'bosc < to-in«'bos(" (Thm'n.). thc fol'nls [" <ii, 
irai' <i»de can only l»e (listinguishcd l»cforc s, iml+.¢ 
],ecoming i»t, e.g. iMamail or i»t.amail <si»,d-.¢amail 
'imitation, but insddt)dtbe <i»d-.ddtothe: ],clore r thc 
usual form is iml-, e.g. b,d-r(,d ' invasion.' hcft,re thc othcr 
cOIISOIlants l,oth ftn'm al,pear as i»-, c.g. infft' (ff=T) 
<ini-ffe»a (()gham) 'daughter,' but in-cho««. 'lueallillg ' 
may stand for either simç«'h,,.c or si»,de-ch(,.'('. 
B. i», e.g. iwgvei»o ' l,ersecutes ' i»«llmg ' 1 (hvde" " ' 
its place is fre, luently takeu l_,y ad or as, c.7. ad.gvein», 
as.dl,,i»,g : this is l,artly due to thc fact that l»cfore infixcd 
ll'onoulls the fovm of ad, iu and t,.us are alike, aml l,artly 
l)ccausc coml,otmds with the diflbrcnt l)rel,ositious had a 
very S[ulilar nleaning (Thurn.). 
C. i' with dat. and act. c g. i n«b'iti, t'lu thc recel,tion,' 
i mbdlre 'into a langtmge,' with gcminati«m ille.'t,tr 'in a 
vessel,' lu»dru 'in heavcu,' hcnce l»cl'haps latcr io,- als 
bcfore vowels, e.g. i»,»aim.siv 'in the timc.' 
D. sec  90. 
234a. meaninKs ot in. 
Vith dat. in (of place), e.g. iditm 'lu nie,' 'c(t('h Itcç 
'i cx-cry l,lace': (of rime) is.i»d aim.iv si» 'at that tinle,' 
bi ca«h Ido ' cvcrv (la)r'; with accusative into, e.g. i cride 
'into the heart." 
ix ' tlndCl'" v.  



235. la < «le.s < :»let.s'. 
The ohlest form is le, whieh heeomes proelitie la ; Thurn. 
dru.ix es it ff'oto leth 'side.' 
C. la « with weusatire e.g. lamua«cu 'with sons.' 
D. see ç 
235a. meanings of 
(a) possession, e.g. it lib uili 'they are ail yours,' if le. 
i**«l mvil '1 lis are the angeis." 
(b) in the opinion of, e.g. u[ .uebul lcmm "I do no 
e.nsider it, a shmne," *) «I«muiu lim 'we deem ig more 
certain': also to, e.g. , ld h'mm 'it is elem" to me.' 
I«) among (Lat. almd), e.g. la U'dcu 'among the 
Greel;s,' la a,wloru 'apnd anetores.' 
(d) agent, e.. doff6nt, r lciss 'will he wrought hy him,' 
«ou'dt,«ht I« Duaid 'which was bnilg by lhvid." 
(e) along ith, e.g. 1»roiud les« bi taiff 'eaging with 
him in a house,' I, mmarb« 'along with the dead.' 
(f) ethical dative, e.g. dette let (»rinti« 'look thon 
the Coi.inthians.' 
236. d, a, Lat. 
Two distinct l,reposiLions have 1,eeome eonfused: (a) 
:od, Cud eoI'resl,omling go bkr. ud, Eng. out, and (b) 
eorresponding to Lat. ou- in (««ç/èra : the form ««d< o + 
od, round belote the 3rd pers. of the l,rommns aud in later 
newly formed eompounds, is an admixtm'e of both forms 
(Thm'n. who now suggests  uks or :uds as ground form). 
A. Belote eOllSOlltlltS «, tt, e.g. «,pari = obbad < Xod-bad 
'refusal" u«cu<'nd-fl*« 'ehoiee' («;cbdl has d from the 
influence of t6cbdl), ,d.otmir < » ad-od-beir "sacrifices,' con. 
«taiug <:.d-dcdn 'l,uihls': fo, fo, to, +g>¢g, 'd, td 
(tua), e.g. ¢c'e<fo-od-e, ire 'proehunation,' q'dtacht 
%'o-od-dcwht : in t«a.sdcud, t«a«h«cud there is a confusion 
of two 1,rel,tsitions, riz. to-oa-léic- and to-ess-léie (cf. 
pret. as'oilc < « e.s-od-léic-î, t6cbdl < to-od-eabdl 'raising'; 

Thurn. now takes oilc as l'{»or : a.* being for proelitie u.,-s (u/,'. or 
and t «u.,.ul«ml = to-u.*s-olc-. 



125 

iii two old COml.»uuds, lopt.<«to-vd-ber- . 'weli' aud tvs- 
oelC«('ll ( lo-vd-M«tg- ' " l 
])egll,lllllg thc to is rcduccd to t-alld 
uo lcl,gthcning t:tkcs place: hefore l, " it appcars as d, 
()wing to a confusion with lcnitcd ./, i ¢lc,tel'.tol. fOl'lUS 
j" al)pear almlogical]y rcstot'ed ft'om l»r(»tot(nt, forms, e.g. 
iwot)ton..lt«i.'im<to-«d-scm-, dcutcroton, d(,.Jbi«im iu- 
stead of 
lit lCW COml,Otm(ls it aPl,ears as dnd, e.g. «td-fi)tlh'btbe 
(.f=.f) 're-nelatus,' ht(ttt«tsailcth«te<i«t«l-t- 'ahsolutus'; 
in oue word a - riz. hta-béht 'Ol,Cn-moutbcd.' 
B. examples llliCel't«ill. 
G. tT, kt" with dative, e.g. 6 th(,ss«cb "from thc hcgin- 
ing," hi«t ibitd 'from thc al)uld«mce.' 
D. sec ç 88. 
236a. meanings ot 6. 
(et) separation trom. e.g. d .oil..i cta»'«»,i l)t; 'away 
f'onl the light of tbe knowledgc of Go(l," ty htide 
Ab'ttçh(t "a slave who went ri'oto Ab'ahaln.' 
(b) origin or material, e.g. is i«tdib C»I..t 'Christ is 
(Sl,rung) from them." 6 ilb«tllaib 'of many ruerai)ets.' 
(c) agent, e.g. no.oi'(.tbe d p,pd 'used to ])c killed 
by thc i»COldC, ' jbrc«tt," bd s,««trdd 'are taught by a 
priest.' 
(d) instrument, e.g. ht« sMib 'by IlletllS of t}lC eycs," 
d bélib 'with thc iil,s,' ht(« bds 'hy the dcath.' 
(e) çause, e.g. d dc..e'ct" 5.«tlh«t'di 'fl'om 1)r(,thcrly 
love,' ho «tmiri 'from mbelicf.' 
(f) in, e.g. Itdhle d dcosc 'a Jew in q,l,Carancc,' d 
bE.sttib "in customs.' 
(g) [or, trom (of time), e.g. b«; aim«b" 'for a rime,' d 
Ad(m ' fl'onl the time of Adam.' 
(h) partitive (Olll)" with sutxed pl'OIIOllllS), e.g. ccb 
• i«tib-.' 'Ole of you,' cdcb ««tl-i 'each OllC of s.' 



126 

237. oc <  aggu- ' af.' 
A longer form oçu is round proclitic belote verbal forms. 
A. & B. on]y in the verb o«u.ben ' touches ' in whieh forms 
of the subst, verb are confused with forms of benaid, e.g. fut. 
3rd pl. oct.bi(tt, pass. sg'. ocu.bether, perf. oc«t.ro-bae, pres. 
pass. 3rd pl. octt.bendar, l,rototon. .oçnan«tt«o', verbal 
noun ot.nHti(l, (. ocnttide; it the l«'ototon, forms the b 
of the foot is changed to m (=) 1,rohably ut«lev the 
fluencc of the I,rep. coin in forms like .ecmaing (Thuru.). 
C. oc. otc (uc, ucc, ,«, iv) with dative, e.g. oc lubie.te 'at 
the creation,' tc soi l»Stric "at Patrick's white-thorn, 
soi. oc tintmith ' skilled at trausl:ttiug,' trén oc te«mallad 
' mighty at gathering' ; with a verbal uoun and the sui)st. 
verb to forma «ontiuuous tense, present or past, e.g. bbtu- 
set oc irbdig'] ara wont to be glorying,' ilr ocprecept 
.sosc«qi.tl5 'it is prc«tching thc Gospcl that I ara,' ce-rml. 
bol oec a thindn.«td-som ' though he was dclivering Him 
.up." 
D. see  
238. os < ks, ' above.' 
C. ds, 6,. with dative, later leuitiug e.g. tctstm 'above 
me,' h«as r¢n ' al»ove the sun,' hua., lil'ib ' over letters ' 
mctaphorically 6.,' çeçh anmimm ' above every naine.' 
D. see  88. 
239. reine, re < prisami, cf. Lat. 
< prsmo.s (Thuru.) ' i,efore." 
A. 'em', e.g. rem-.uidiytd 'preposition,' 
t 1 WC(sSiOll. 
B. 'emi., tel. reine-e.g, remi.stMiddi.s 'they used o 
place it before,' 'emi.taat 'lwaesuut, ' tel. reme.n-Hiçsed 
gl. on prne-oplftre. 
C. 'e" (ri), later .ht ', with dative: e.g. re -oivi[e 
gr«ffd ' before receiving orders," ri [e«ht (i.e. decht) 'before 
going,' re mbds ' before death.' 
D. see  8. 



127 

240. o 
(For fo as verbal l.,article v. §§ 1)3-105). 
A. fo', 
«,«o, e.g. ro-mdr (m = g) ' too great,' ro-5h«ch 'too fond 
of drilddug,' hef. verls -ro-O (for .»'o-Mg) "l'eaehes.' Bef.re 
vowe]s the o is dl'Ol,led, e.g. -r-le 'reaehes,' hut is l'e- 
taiued in the ro-suhj, of dem-, e.g..derohm«. In the 
pret. of do.gn[ and do.sh«i, di it 1,eeomes ri under the 
il,flUCllee of the voealization of t]le lwototolL nal'r, forms, e.g. 
do.rigéni after .dtgd, i, do.rtlti.et after dilti.s.et : hef, l'e the 
verb léi«id it heeomes re, e.g. .reil«ed (deuteroton. 
ro.létYed). 
Betweeu l'etail,c(1 cons,nm,ts iu thc syllablc immediatcly 
after the accent it beeomes -af from )', e.g. 
< t-ind-'-.«an < to-imt-ro-s«an. 
B, 'o 'tt, e.g. ro.saiff 'veaehes to.' Prototon. fovmsare 
sometimes round instead of deuteroton, e.g. ri«eu, 'ucad 
hesides ro.h'«u, ro.uead. 

C. D. hot fould. 

241. sech, Lat. 
The proclitic forms .echmo-, sc«hmi-are after the 
analogy of iarmtt-, iarmi-, &c. 
A. and B., ouly with verbs of motion : e.g. se«hmo.ella 
' passes by' (with 6 ' is wauting '), prototon...+e«hmalla. 
C. with accusative, e.g. ech cdch 'leyond every one.' 
D. see § 89. 

241a, meanings of sech. 
(a) beyond, e.g. s'ech mo chomSe.-.a 'heyoud my 
coevals,' sech in n-aires.if '|)eyolt(1 the time.' 
(b) rather than. e.g. t, it leu pre«ept dom«a .eccu 
'they are jealou. that I preach rather thau they.' 
(c) contrary to, e.g..ech com««i-rli D,," "coutrary to the 
counsel of Goal." 



242. tar, dar< :ta'e«, Skr. lirSh. 
A. tairm'- (tarin'-), e.g. tairm-thecht 't«'ans,rcssion,' 
tairm-ehosal ' l)revavicatio ' ; lolg'cr fornl in tairme.cc 
'hildranee.' 
B. tarmi, e.g. tarmi.herar 'is rransferred,' buç it is 

usually reldaeed by tremi (v. § 244), e.g. tremi.berar. 
C. tar, dar, with aeeusative, e.g. tar er[ch 'over the 
territory.' 
D. see§ 89. With the suflixed prons, of the 3rd pers. 
tair.e, tairsit le original final s realq,êars. 

242a. meaninKs of tar. 
(a) across, over, e.g. tar cr&'h, tav ro.c'over the 
eye.' 
(b) by (in swearing), e.g. tar Ioib 'by Julfiter,' 
d'ctitig tarai.' .fade.i. ' tle sware by Himself.' 

243. to, do ' to.' 
(Fvom the demonstvative sten, to- (Thurn.D. 
A. to', tu', e.g. to-thaim ' fall,' to-chmarc 'wooing' ; 
when the following syllable eontais a, also ta-, e.g. tabair, 
• tarat, < do.beir, do.rat : in .terffa, "tir9a the vowel 
change is due to the influence of the deuteroton, fovms 
do.reffa, do.riffa ; in teilcind, teh'ht, &e., from do.l(ici the 
change is lwol)al»ly duc to confusion with au old com!,ound 
to-et-léh'- (Thm'n.). ri in .tLbdra 'will givc" is explained 
as due to thc amdogy of the vedupl, fut. (Thurn.) or of 
• diffdn (BevgJn). Belote vowels t-, c.g. t-h" 'cornes,' and 
hefore other lweps, with vocalic anlaut, e.g..tord-, .t-e..-, 
t-imm- ; l»ut with od it llSll;tlly appears as 15 (ttla) : 
toz)'- > tS-, t6r, e.g. tS-be (to-fi»be-), rob'mach (to4br- 
mff-) do only appears lu latcr artificial coml»om(ls , c.g. 
dobriathar ' ad«'crl).' do-a«aldma«h 'alq)cllativus.' 



1:29 

B. (For archic t«, to, v. Iutrod.) 
From Wh. onwards do, d«, e.g. do.te[t 'falls, d«.tdt 
'cornes': before vowels sometimes A as well as B, e.g. recel- 
bat beside do.adbat 'shows.' 
C. do', dt', with dative, e.g. do chath 'to battlc,' do 
thaidbsit 'to show.' 
D. see § 88. 
243a, Meanings of to, do. 
(a) aire: e.g. d« démtm mec[rit 'to doing good,' de) 
thabirt d[ghte 'with a view to iuflieting i,unishmcnt.' 
(b) agent: a .ft,l«t»g dom-.«t 'thcir sufferiug to me= I 
had to surfer thcm,' airit[tt col»o dfi Cltr[.t 'the taking of 
ficsh hy Christ,' [ dé»tri dftib-.«i 'it should hot 1)c done 
by you.' 
(c) state: e.g. de Ittdeib do Bar»tctip 'Barnabas was of 
Jewish origin,' d samlaid sd»t d'm-»i 'it is hot so with us.' 

243. b. tri, tre < *trê_iott (Thurn.). 
(The forlll tremi, trimi, after analogy of 'emi.) 
A. trem'-, e.g. trem-feidligtd (f=j') 'permanence,' trem- 
ctm«ti»'esach 'perfidus.' 
B. tre»,i-, trimi, tel. treme, examl)les rare, e.g. trimi 
• berar, treme.tlta[t 'which pcnetrates': in tr[..ffat«t[m 
b,re through' it follows the amdogy of j)'i, fri.. 
C. tri', tre', with accus«tive, e.g. tri cltret[m 'throug'h 
faith, tri thabairt 'through giving'; with the article 
tri.»m, &c. ; with the rel. particle 
D. see § 89. 
2433. /Vleanings of tri. 
(a) through : e.g. tri .c«ath 'per speculum.' tri t]temel 
through darkness.' 
(b) instrument : e.g. tri bc«t]ti. 'by means of haptism,' 
beo i,d a»im t.ri .od[»t 'the soul is therel)y alive," tri 
t]m'ad mo p»'ecepte 'by the fruit of my teachiug'.' 
i 



130 

(c) cause: tre t]ah'mt]wct recto 'by reason of trans- 
.ression of the Law,' is marb h corp tri.na senpecthu 
'the body is dead because of the old sins.' 
244. (s)amal 'like, as,' cf. Lat. similis. 
The form amal (proclitic with loss of initial s, v. § 24) is 
in origiu an adverhial dative of samail 'similitude' (Thurn.). 
It is fimluded among the prepositions because it takes the 
accusative and suflixed pronouus. 
C. amal', e.g. amal chlanda 'as children,' amal cho- 

ch«ll 'like a covering.' 
D. accented with s-, see § 89. 
245. Examples of compounds 
prepositions. 
la i»'bi»" < «atth = tooair= beir 
• 6c re < «atr= fo - od - ga i»'e 
com (tcomol ( : o-d-o- l- 
coin lb itritl'lt8 ( CO = to=a]r=o= reth- 
dorécacha < * di-ro-en=c- 
eta rtela roc r < «etar= to =etar= cur 
fristinfet < «Yrtth  to- ind-fet 
imtimcél fctm < * tmb= to= im b=c- 
intinscamta < «ind=to-tnd=scamt- 
tia rmdrach t  toiarmo=Io r- 

xvith several 

brlngs " ' 
agun. 
COIl]lllalld.  
conjunction.' 
incursion.' 
has seen.' 
intercession.' 
blows " ' 
agallSt. 
'we shall surroum-l.' 
begins.' 
following.' 

246. Nominal Prepositions (with genitive of noun 
and possessive pronoul). 
i narrad with.' t n=degatd (dgcud) after. 
ar bdlaib 'before.' ddg (d'féch) ' on account 
fo bith (fit blthin) ' because of.' 
of.' dot:hum'" ' to.' 
ar chenn ' to meet.' do éis ' (remaining) behind.' 
tar cenn ' instead of.' tar ési ' after, in place of.' 
ar chiunn 'belote, await- i n-ellug (elhwh) 'united 
iug.' with.' 
di chiunn 'away.' a persin 'in the person of. 
ar chuit 'as regards, as fo.' as to.' 
for ctilu ' back, backward.' a rainn ' as regards.' 
i n.dead (diad) 'after.' dl rziith 'in place of.' 



IX.--THE CONJUNCTIONS. 
247. Copulative. 
(a) acus' ocus" (octis), later is : ' and' ; in origin connee- 
ted with the adj. acuÆ, oct., ' near' : etir--ocus = ' bothm 
• "tlld. ' 
(b) emith--emith, or emid---emid : (W. hetgt, heJgd 
0.H.G. «cornet), uscd to translate the Ltt. tam--qt«am; 
e.g. emid du.scdula, emid ara.n-ggea: it is derived from 
x/.em and eognate with Gk. ta nd Lat. semel, simd; 
cf. Lat. use of simtl--simul, e.g. simd spernebat, simd 
mettebant. 
(c) sceo (W. heibio from . seq 'to follow') 'and,'a 
l,oetic word common in "'rhetorics." 
248. Disjunctive. 
(a) n6", o , m: : 'or,' e.g, dd 7»'ecept6ir o t]rii : o 
"*»to-te <*ne-çte (cf. I,at. ece) originlly meant ' or hot.' 
(b) robo, rodbo 'either, or';iu origin a potential fo- 
Subi. (Thurn.), the d in rodbo heing probably an infixed 
pFOllOUll. 
(c) a, ha or  v. § 101. 
249. Temporal. 
(t) in tain, in ta», (lit.'at the time'): 'when' e.g. in 
tain mb[. "when it is,' in tan dt.rtirngert Dia'when 
God promised. æ 
(b) nach tan : ' whenever,' e.g. ach tan ro.n-ecat a les 
'whenever they need it.' 
(c) dia': 'when' (with the narr. pret.) e.g. dia.htid 
Dauid for longais 'when Dvid wen into exile.' 
(d) a": neg. a»ma, with ro>arru-, ara'u-; e.g. an-o-- 
derbid 'when you prove,' ara-bas cete 'when i is sung,' 
ana-taibrem 'when we give not,' ar«u.ces'tai9ser 'when 
hou disputeds.' 
(e) la=se (lit. 'with this'): 'when,' e.g. lasse ad-n-ellhtb 
' when I shall visi'; also ' whereas,' e.g. lase foruillecta 



132 

be6il in chalich di »fil co.¢.¢e oall ' whereas hitherto the 
lips of the chalice bave beên smeared with honey.' 
(f) éin, éine (acc. and gen. of ckm): 'so long as, 
whilst,' e.g. céin bas béo b Jë" 'so long as the man (bus- 
baud) lires,' cébw no.soi]è-Mt 'so long as thou tul'nest.' 
(g) ' and ua" (= d + et"): 'since,' with perf. ' after,' e.g, 
ho lnid Adam ta" réb" 'since Adam tz:ausgressed the will 
(of God)', htrt.g-erbb'mi.s, bhtth gl. ozz ex illo tempore quo 
degel)mms,' d ad.cuaid 'aftcr he has declared,' (ad.ctaM 
= l)crf, of ad.f C) : possil)ly 5 with the copula is contained 
in os m(ç &c., 'I. as for me, &c.,' 3rd pl. ot é, fl'on d-is 
d-it é (Thurm). 
(h) iarsindi: 'after,' e.g. 
'aftcr thcy were worthy of death,' [ar,bdl ha mane noch 
riim ' after it was mae "early" before.' 
(i) resiu, risiu (lit. 'l»efore this'): 'belote' with 'o-sul)j.. 
e.g. 'esht rL«-sa 'l)efore I corne,' 'i.ult 'o.c[oamm««r 
' before we hear.' 
(j) o" (= co + et »') : neg. coznd, cooz5ch, ' uutil': e.g. 
con.tSffcc lex 'until the law came,' co-t[ in fi''-brithem 
(ri= d[)'uutil the truc judge corne': after negative sen- 
tences, with -o-subj., e.g. co.r'uc-sa do chen-su (co.r'tc 
cog-'o-uc) ' uutil I bring thy bead.' 

250. Final. 
(a) ara" (=ar+a): neg. a'n6, a'naco. 'in order 
that': e.g. ara.-dernaid an-do.gHam i  a'a.dernaid 
a-««l demm-ff ' that ye may do what we do, and that 
ye may uot do what we do hot'; also as explicative, e.g. 
asbered J»'i« ara.géti. degimu 'he used to tell them 
to do good deeds.' 
(b) co': 'in order that,' e.g. co eterce'ta'that he mav 
interpret'; neg. coff eta'scartha. 'that it be hot Sel)arated' 
(c) co": ' in order that,' e.g. co.-den« deg»[m ' that he 
do ood deeds: neg. " " ' 
comtach.modect zech lest anv one 
should boast': also explicative, e.g.a.be'at com.bad"thev 
say that it would be.' 



133 

(d) abamin (a"ameinn), with pret. subj. without fo: 
' would that,' e.g. abamin fo.r.n-ahlmilte'wouhl tllat thou 
wouldest cdl to mind': 
The origan of tlle forms is ol)scllrc: [ suggest that abamin 
(afameimt) as an eclamatory pbrase=d bad amht, i.e. 
the exclam«ttiou d '() ' fouud only with tbe vocative case of 
nOOllS (exccl,t in the Latinism a tht.s.vn), bad or lad the 
3rd sg. citllcr of thc inl],ertive or of tbe prct. subi. 
of the copula, and amant, ameht, ameit-.«e 'thus, so'; 
the l,hr«tse mcauiug lit. 'O tiret it were soi' the form 
afi«mem«d (a[]hmem«d) uscd with a past tCllSe 
addition mmtllcr fovm of the COl,Ubt -ad = hl (cf. mad) and 
moins lit. 'O that it were so it ha(l bce,1 ]' For the reduc- 
tiou jhd amin>fi«min cf..fodc.sin>jdit : the fOl'laiS with 
ffshow that tbc.fwas lm[Cllited, and the form afomet.a 
(Meyer ('ontril)b.)=d lad amet-se. For a very similar 
phl'se with the saine UlCning cf. Welsh 0 ta bai  0 
byddai 0 ta bua.s'ai (past) ; cf. also oli.samcin 252, 257. 
dno, dono, arcbaic dadt, d«mcu : 'theu,' co,'respondiug 
in use to Lat. ergo, igitt,r; e.g. cicr dono ' who then,' 
ceeh fit dota ' it as llOt every grass thCll.' 
didiu < di .«Miu : ' then, accordingly, e.g.i.s, loto" 
dMi« creitem bwholnictho ' bclief in the incarnation, then, 
as sufficient for us.' 
trd : "tben, therefore,' e.g. a»t[.iu trd i.s écen 'this, then, 
as necessary,'/s folb,s, a sin trd'it as evident from this 
then.' 
251. Conditiona. 
m, md, usually leuitiug, neg. mad : 'if, if hot': with 
the and. when the condition as 1)l'esent or past e.g. ma 
cbomaldt a tgrdd 'if they fulfil their ovders,' ma ru-d- 
chois.cset « .mmuhttir 'if they bave corrected their house- 
hold': with thc subi. if future, e.g. tati ît'M(ty 'unless I 
(shall) lweach,' .marri ab'gara rect'unless the law (shall) 
Iorbid'; with the pret. subi. if the condition be inaginary 
or doubtful, e.g. matis tni«si ' if they had been elect (but 
they were llOt).' 



di,": 'if,' with subi., e.g. 
chimme 'if we fulfil what we 1,reach,' tilot« in bend«t«had 
dict.m»mld«tchae ' hlessing is hot enough il thou cm'se.' 
,«lrt (ctct): 'l,rovidcd that,' with 'o- subj., e.g. 
«t..robnrth«tr it m['lrovidcd the month be nlentioned,' 
ttchl ro)»o i ltil l)ée 'l,rovided it be in God's will': neg. 
with sul,j, without fo-, e.g. «tct tt bed t«tll ctd ' provided 
there were no 1,ride therei,,' «tct  «trbarctt bitth ina 
ttari 'l,rovided they do hot partake of the food.' 

252. Cusal. 
6re, hdrc, htnre '. sg. ,ff (h)t,tr=hrt, originally 
temporal iike Eng. 'since' : ' because,' e.g. httt«e ro«reit.e 
'l,eeause hey have belicved,' h,;re no-n-dob-mol,2r-.a 
'l,ee«utse [ ,raise you.' 
fo bitlr: 'because,' e.g. ri, b[th do--9n[«tt cercol 
' because they make a cirele,' Jb b[lh i« ephcborl»dtte 
'tha is because i is ineorl,oreai.' 
dég : ' 1,ec;mse,' e.g. d(,j r,2-m-bt écid«tircc ' because he 
was al,sent,' th;3 ro-b,;i in ,'Diltr dib le.o.s. 'because the 
Holy Sl,irig was with him.' 
ol: 'because,' only in the l,hrasc ol i. ttmeb 'l,ecause 
ig is so.' 
ar, air: 'for, because,' L«t. ctm, e.g. ter is di lt.s 
do.,j[tber ' for it is fronl an herb i is nmde,' airi ' on that 
,CCOtlllt.' 
sec/ : ' yet, althottgh" (originally ' besi(les that'), e.g..'ech 
[s 6e-s'l)irtl fi,t.d«'di'yet it is one sl)irit distributes it,' 
sech ha birbthe a ires. .'idi ' although his faith was perfec,' 
sech ha htttislitt bt[ for.cho:œair'although he who orders 
were superior': in 5Il..e«h i, .ech it are also used in the 
exl,lanaory sense of 'tha is, i.e.' with or withou a follow- 
ing a6t or d»t, e.g. s'ech is. ilnigfe .,; 'i.e. Thou wil 
multiply,' secb i. me.¢caiglder 6n. 'i.e. Thou wilt intoxicate,' 
sech it gbnoi sdn 'i.e. he deeds,' sech i. mo cboi. "i.e. 
my foot': for sech [ v. § 101. 



135 

253. Adversative. 
cammalb, cammoiph, cammaif (c««nmi Wh. 3 d ), 
<camm-oOh lit. ' false apl,earauce' (Thurn.): ' still, not- 
withstanding': e.g. in »andid cammaib atnid.i 'it is thus, 
however, that ye are,' d-a-géna camm«tib 'he will do it, 
however,' cam«th thechtait m'nmnidi ' nevertheless, they 
have uomilmtives,' Ng. 209 b 3a, here camaip] causes 
]enition. 
lmmurgu < im-ro-geu ' a gl'cat falsehood ' '] (suggested 
by Thurn.), cf. Mid. l. immair-bré«, and l,at. he««-d which 
is eoguatc, origilmlly theu a stroug eoutradictory: used 
like Lat. «tttcm : e.g. in beo id tnim, in m«trb in corp 
immrg« 'the soul is «dire, but the body is dead," ni 
lh««i no .»enme immm'g« " but my mind doe hot under- 
stand it'; along with «o»u«)h, e.g. rocrthadsemmat 
c«»mOd imm«rg« 6en ch«b'act«r 'we have formed uever- 
theless one eharaeter': with noch, e.g. noch i»nmm.g« ni 
rol.at ' still notwithstandiug they did hot east away.' 
nocD : 'but, yet,' used like Lat. lamen, attomen : e.g. 
anml no.bed, noch ni rail 'as if it were, yet it is hot'; 
with ém, «bn, e.g. noch ,m ara 1.srahéhle 'although indeed 
I ara an Israelite', no«h cire fo«lcHicenél 'but still it distiu- 
guishes geuder '; noch :s. also in Ml. = 'that is," cf..ech £q. 
ém, m: 'indeed however,' e.g. ricc«b-.«« éta 'I will 
corne however,' do.gtian 6n 'we iudeed make.' 
cDt (¢«c/): 'but, excel,t that'; e.g. ni delb adrorsot, 
a«t  commMi«. delbe 'it is hot an image that they have 
adored, but it is the likeuess of an image,' ro.lggsat c<«ndin 
fetarlaici oc. n«fiodn£.s'i anml rwn-det-le:g.am-ni, acht 
ro-n-d««-.«Hb,set-son 'they bave read the Canou of the Old 
Testament aud of the New Testament as we have read 
it, exeel.t tha they have perverted it': with an ex- 
tension of the latter meaniug e.g. ni redot-som acht 
bréi« 'they speak only lies': with n««mm, e.g. ««cht 
comp«trit ne,t««ir namnui 'but the neuter comprative 
only,' acht namm« (gl. on ni.*i forte) 'save only.' 



136 

inge, except ; e.g. in tan ba. ram bt ,qillab except 
when the syllable is a part (of speech),' b)ge mad etar- 
scartha ' uuless it be separated ' 
calléic, e«dléice ( < %en + léi«iud = 'without leavingoff'): 
'still, even'; e.g. m)-n.avth'h D[a «alléi« 'God protects us 
still,' ammi]dHti «alléie in tril,nbttionibus ' we are joyful 
¢vel it tribulatiodbus.' 

254. Concessive. 
cit, ce: (usually lenitiu) 1,eore vowels ci, neg. ced, 
ci, d, 'flthough ': when used with thc indicative it infixes d 
excel,t, where thcre is «th'ea(ly «u infixed l,rOllOtm, e.g. c[a 
rud.,'hncdatar ilbélre 'although they h«ve hcard lnany 
buiguagcs,' but ce m«s.labrr«t,r 'alth(,ugh they speak them' 
where the « of the 3rd pers. 1,1. is infixed : likc md it takes 
the sul,junctive in hyl,othetieal or douht[ul cases, e.g. ci 
as.bera e«h 'thoug'h any OliC Sty,' cicr du.gneid »m rdtu 
sa 'though ye do these things': with thc copula cid, pl. cit, 
'though it be, even,' e.g. cid do hutdr 'eveu for au hour,' 
«ith etar.uidigthe 'even thoug it be interposed,' oit geinti 
even (entiles.' cht followed by the subjunctive with or 
without ro is used as an explicative, e.g. t[ hed to.t-beir i 
tem cht ba Ioitgthe«h 'it is ltot this that brings thee to 
heaven, that thou shouldest be a glutton,' i. hte[.ç.s.e ce ru. 
• *amall«rfri Cr[.«.t 'it is right that he should be compared 
to Christ.' 
das, ds, adds.: ( < * a" + d«ms = taas ?) in sg. used to 
tender an isolated Lat. qttamffttan or quamv[.; with 
na and cht 'although,' e.g. od««s cicr citabd 'etiam si 
persentiat,' adas cio d-a-gndo 'though if I do it.' 

255. Comparative. 
amal, am8H: 'as'; e.g. am«d hguides.q ««thb" a maçc 
'as a father beseeches his son,' umŒEdl ct.,-bM-ber alcdle 'as 
sonle o11#3 says it.' 
feib, ftb : 'as,' e.g. jëib fond.t«dr .qom la auetoru 'as 
he bas found it in authors,'fib ces deg ro.pridehed 'as it 
has been preached best.' 



137 

cruth : 'how, as' (sho,'tened from bt chruth 'in the form, 
manuer'), e.g. ertth lo.i'idchi...em 'how we have preached,' 
crtth na»dat chom.ddigthi 'as they are hot compounds.' 
tnne, inni : 'as, such as,' e.g. i»me ro.l»'M«hed dib 
'as bas been preached to you,' imd ro.m-bdtar r[nm bi 
tempul ' such as they were before in the temple.' 
méit: (from méit 'size, extent.'), 'as regards,' e.g. rugit 
o. »)do .ç»'ibmtd 'as regards writing': méitm(it = ta»tttt»t 
qtt¢ttttm, e.g. méit doffmbtag, r Jbrmd fi,«hilh, iss, i 
m(it i»..i»z do.»ffnd»,g(«r iz dlth»md 'in proportion as 
suflE]'ing is bestowed upou us, so is thc consol«ttion that is 
bestowed': ni hed a »dita,'bt = »tc,»t solttms.cd etiam, 
e.g. l hed a redit t,»t-chretid-si net fiMoimid ./bchidi 
oiri'uot only do ye believe it, but ye endure suflrings 
therefor.' 

X.--THE ADVERBS 

(For adverbs formed from adjectives v. § 7,, for adverbs 
of place v.  96.) 
256. ot time. 
intliu ( < b, (the art. (?) or prep. (?)) + diu dat. of dia 
' day'), ' to-day.' 
inclé (< i»t (the art..) + dé which corresponds to W. doe, 
Gk. ×0dç, Skr. hyah), 'yesterday': adj. from dg= 
déthenachde ' hesternus.' 
innocht, Lat. h«tc »octe, 'to-night.' 
intremtlitl, W. tremgdd, 'three days after.' 
rnntin (dat.) 'in the morning.' 
inclorsn, bdossa ( < i»d 6r .sa ' this hour'), ' now.' 
infechtsn, bdecht.o, 'this time.' 
inc/innirn so 'at this rime.' 
iartain afterwards; iarum afterwards; riam before. 
talmaidiu (dat. of a noun) 'suddenly.' 
aithirriuch (dat. of aithirrech 'repetition') ' again.' 



tossuch (dort. of tossach ' beginning') 't first." 
chtnn (dat. of cenn ' head, end') 'at the eud.' 
moch ' early.' 
do grés ' contimmlly.' 
on nttritl ' from last yer.' 

257. oî manner. 
amin, amein, omne : (amin < «r«m-.in ' like that'D, e.g. 
d-a-rigni amin '(he) ruade it thus,' i atone dognither 
'i is hus it is done,' ol i. amein ' hecue it is so.' 
immalle, immallei {immellei) : < imm-a"-le, le < leth 
side,' together. 
immanetar: 'inter se, invieem, lu tutu,' e.g. dech,o" eter 
corpu, tal,nandi immonetar 'a diflçrence between earthly 
hodies allOg themselves.' d-a-gnltis, on[-sin immenetor 
'they used to da this in turn.' 



139 

APPENDIX A. 

Loanxvords. 

(v. Pedersen V.G. . 2l, I20 .eq., Thurn. [Il,. § 904 et «eq.) 
258. from Britannic sources 
cdi» ' bcautiful," W. cei: muirm(;rn 'sircns, mcrmfids,' 
V. mo»forwy ; bilcmt 'sea-gull,' W. gwyla ; c»ai 
'flcecc,' W. omif; t»'emdht ' lhrcc days ;trier." W. treyd 
<tre«tyd; jbh'h 'wasps,' O. lb'ct, gu,d (). C.rn. 
g,hic ; li«tthrit,e ' 1,alls,' W. Ilithr, ' to glidc.' 

259. from Latin 
(tt) Older borrowiugs introdueed by 1-h'itish inissionaries, 
and eonsequeutly showing traces of lh'itannie infltteuee, 
sueh as h-ish d for l«t. 6, e.g. ,lt,;ir 'altïve,' Tr[ml6it 
'Triuitt-,' htmaldSit 'humilitït-,' pSc 'paeis' (oseuhmO, 
also the et(lillg -dit fol.-drit., due to W. «tllor, TrbM¢«I, 
ttjël[dod; loss of sylhddes as iu .,.'loir 'historia,' «t»9'«tib 
'antigral,hulu,' lwmtit "paenitentia,' Mid. l-h'et, ste»', W. 
ctrdr«tij) peyd; on this model later lo;utwords are also 
fOl'lned, e.g. ordit, 'orêtio' ec[«ti.,, 'eeelesia,' ,,«warbaicc 
' saevifieium'; the writiug of c, t, p for g, d, b after vowels, 
and g, ¢t, b fol' T, ,/3, v § 4. 
(b) Lttcl" ]»orrowillgS direct from Latiu writings. Thcse 
are clmractcrizcd :-- 
(1) by falsc quautities, c.g. cci.st 'quacstio,' pred«'hhl or 
pridchid 'praedicat,' c6r, chtar ' chïtracter,' Pdtraicc 
"PStricius,' légaid ' lêgit' (prol,ably tmdcr thc influcucc o 
c»'ibtM, Thuru.); 
(2) by l'etention of somc fimtl syllables, c.g. g,e 'tmcit,' 
caimm.e 'camisia,' as compared with .toir, eclais of (a); 
(3) l»y changes (hm to thc analogy of native words, e.g. 
grand 'grïtdus,' mêsar ' mensura," mebti" " mcmoria,' 
(g = 3') ' saeeulum,' lebor ' liher,' after the amtlogy of 
'love,' me.s 'judgment.' mebM ' shame,' b,[gttl 'danger," 
lebor ' long." 



140 

960. c, s, f for p, f, v. 
In old loanwords the hish substituted c for p, s for f 
aud f for «, proba|dy after the analo of the already 
existing correspoude,ee lu cognate words like macc, W. 
mat) ; ¢.rann, W. n'enn.; .r6n, W. )'oen: e.g. corcu" 
' purpur«,' d,bn ' plum«¢.' caille ' pMlimn,' chtnd ' plauta,' 
W. plant, (bllwaige' Ptrieius': sorn 'fur, ns,' sene.ter 
' Dnestra,' .ian ' freuum,' ..rogell 'flagellun¢; fiurt 'uirtus,' 
/[al 'uelum': in later borrowiugs p and f rcmain unclmnged, 
e.g. topul 'polmlus,' pr««'elt ' precel,t«un,' P«tra[cc 
' Patricius'; /ig«," ' figura,' fi'lsnb ' 1,hilosoldmS. ' 

961. Borrowed Verbs. 
Borrowed verhs follow the coujugtiou of Class A I.: 
adraim (' ador«u"e') is tre«tcd sonctimes as though ig were 
a native COml}OU,«l verb, e.g. r«l.r-orsat 'they bave adored': 
«dso con.ecratno ('eonsecrare'), e.g. ct«t..e«'ar 'he con- 
seerated it.' 



141 

APPENDIX B. 
OId Irish Orammatical Terms 
(from the ,q.G. Glosses on Priseian). 
Phonology. 
' sound' «wuit ' aeute' 

»uybffm" ' c,cophouy' 
comjbgu" ' ' 
COll$OllllCe 
.Ibg '" 
nephcon ur lllçOI)8011. 
deoguv (de-,g.) dq,hthong 
liter ' letter' 
c«r«whta" ' eharaeter' 
abbgitir ' lphabct' 
gutte ' vowel' 
fftta.çn ' vocalism' 
gaS'it ' short' 
timmovte ' eontraeted' 
ai»'d[.ve ' long' 
oh'cent (-nd) ' accent' 
groif' grave' 
Declension. 
«tathad Slllgllltl" 
ila" plurl 
cenél gender 
ntt.ettl ' " ' 
maseuhne 
masculindo ' mase.' 
femin ' fcminine' 
tui.el ' ' 
¢S 
camthuisel 'oblique ese' 
c«inmtid ' nomiuative' 
ffeu[t[» ' genitive' 
toba'thid ' dative' 
6inMd ' accusative' 
to9crthid ' voetivc' 
ablatwe 
loxhdd ' " ' 
d?dl declenslon 
dilledach ' deelinablc' 
tephdilled«wh ' indcelin.' 
¢t[nnt l'én ' substantive' 

t'O.s'Oi  COIi.Ollilit' 
leth9Eute ' scmi-vowel' 
h.ehd,dt ' liquid' 
Ittt " relire' 
diuft ' simple' 
diahul ' douhle' 
elnuad ' doub]inf 
ti»tfed ' asl i rat ioll" 
séhn ' sm(.»th, lcliis' 
sfflab ' syllsble' 
uit ' ultima' 
peneult " lcnultima ' 
coimmcDh,ud 'mutation' 
ti»tiit n-dUes ' prol,cr noun' 
aDti»t n-adiecht 'a({ieetive' 
oiitl#t »i,-bi'iatDai'd« ' v. uoun' 
di9E««btDa«D ' diminutive' 
docaldiua«h ' appellative' 
eomaiitinueehdecD 'syiionym.' 
aithe»'i'«eDtailthe 'patroilynl.' 
Duatuasail«lhe ' ahsohltc' 
condely9 ' eonll,arison" 
posit ' positive' 
coinpai'it ' conlluu'ati c' 
m«perlait ' supcrlative' 
««»'th'ol ' article' 
p»'otontet ( l'oto[b ) 'l,ronoun' 
et t6 rcadach ' ana I h o vie' 
ait'ebthe«h ' possessive' 
oith.fo»'l.'othech ' demonst.' 
imnwhomai'snech 'interrog.' 
ém'etha,'h ' redditive' 
««dch,imchladach 'reeiproeal" 



142 

coibeden ' COlljllgat.ioll' 
.lillit«l ' flexion' 
nlod « l|lood' 
aimser ' tense' 
.l?ee)dnirc ' lresen$ ' 
.echm«dachte ' pretcrite' 
.. m,irbthe ' prcL. iml,f.' 
«. jbirbthe ' pret. pevf.' 
olbirbbe ' l,luperf.' 
hMo«hide ' future' 
t;e,'b'h d,e "aorist' 
imlMit ' indicative' 
«,,maccmol ' s,fl,junctive' 
optait ' optative' 

Conjuation. 
.lbr/g(trthid ' imperative' 
btfiuit ' infinitive' 
geriud ' gerulld' 
br[ahar ' verb' 
b. g»dmo 'active verb' 
b. césta 'passive verb' 
diusc¢t rtnch ' del OllellL' 
d e. immdch t h ech 'denomin.' 
cdlnMe ' prindtive' 
tairmtheçhtM 'transitive' 
nephtnirmth 'intransitive" 
ran»gabdil ' participle' 
tarmoreenn ' termination' 
delb ' paradfgnl' 

Particles. 
dobriath.r 'adverb' iaterie,'ht ' inteljeetion" 
rem&ddigud ' tweposition' com«wcomol ' eonjunetion" 
yntax. 
tdb«e ' eoncision' 
eonstruction" 
«nalach analogy 
composition' indlach ' diaeresis' 

immo,.mam 1., 
i,mn.t"ognam  
com.uidigud ' 
sreth ' ordre" 
com.reith ' construction' 
rcmthcchta. ' antel,osition' 
t[armm'acht ' postposition" 
accom.1 ' combination" 
ram ins«e 'part of speech' 
imptth ' anastrophe' 
comnim)d[s ' alqosition' 
eiscsin ' porrection" 
erchra ' ellipsis' 
comdhthad ' synaeresis' 
di.@uthigud ' dcrivatiou' 

intMiuch t'I, 
Mond I signification 
«imdud ' definition' 
jblad ' substance' 
c&ll 'sens< nmaldng" 
imte ' qualiy' 
guth ' voiee' 
epert ' vocable' 
Jbcul ' word" 
2}tath ' figure' 
nénug,«d " hiatus' 

Prosody. 
fer. ' verse' glanad ' elision' 
traig 'foot' metar 'metre' 
cetbargarait 'proeeleusmatie' 



143 

APPENDIX C. 

Miscellaneous Paradigms. 
as.beir ' says' 
INDICATIVE. 

deuterotonic. 
1 as.biur 
2 ,s.bir 
3 as.beir 
Pass. as.berar, as.berr 
l as.beram 
2 as.berid 
3 a«.berat 
Pass. a..berta-r 

deuterotonic. 
1 as.berMn 
2 a.¢.bertha 
3 as.bered 
Pass. as.berthe 

! mperfect. 
Singular. 
prototonic. 
.eprbm 
.epertha 
.e1»'ed 
.eperlhe 

1 as.bermis 
2 as.berthe 
3 as.berti.s 
Pass. as.berti« 

Plural. 
.eperm is 
.eperthe 
.epertis 
.epertis 



144 

Future 
Singular. 
prototonie. 
.epér 
"epérae 
.epéra 
.epérthar 
Plural. 
.epé»'a m 
.epéraid 
.epérat 
.epértar 

deuterotonic. 
1 a.s.bérinn 
2 as.bértha 
3 a.s.bérad 
Pass. as.bérthe 
1 a...bérmi.s 
2 as.bdrthe 
3 as.bérti.¢ Pass. as.bértis 

Future Preterite. 
Silgular. 
protoonie. 
• el»é»'in n 
.epé»'tha 
.epérad 
.epé»'the 
Pluntl. 
.epdrmN 
.epgrtbe 
.epgrtN 
.epértN 

deuterotonie. 
1 as.bim't 
2 as.birt 
3 as.bert 
Pass. a..breth 
1 as.bertmar 
2 a,.bertid 
3 as.bertahtr 

Preterite. 
Singular. 
prototonic. 
('elmrt) 
.epirt 
.epert 
"el»'ed 
Plural. 
(.epertmar) 
(.cpertid) 
(.epertatar) 



145 

deuterotonic. 
1 as.rubm't 
2 a..rubah't 
3 as.rubart 
Pass. as.robrad 

Perect. 
Singular. 
prototonic. 
.érburt 
.grb.irt 
.érbart 
.érbrad 

1 as.rubartmar 
2 as.rubartaid 
3 a..rubartatar 

Plural. 
.érbartmar 
.érbartaid 
.rbrtatar 

IMPERATIVE. 

Sing. 
1 
2 epir 
3 el»'ed 

131t|r. 
et)l'ellt 
epret 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

deuterotonic. 
1 as.ber 
2 as.berae 
3 as.bera 
Pass. as.berthar 
1 a..beram 
2 a,«.berM 
3 a.¢.berat 
Pass. a..bertar 
k 

Present. 
Singular. 
prototonic. 
.eper 
.ep re 
.eprea 
.eperthar 
Hm'al. 
"el»'e o t 
.eprid 
.epret 
.epertar 



146 

Preterite. 
,ingular. 
prototonic. 
.eprhm 
.epertha 
.epred 
.eperthae 
Plural. 
.epermis 
.eperthe 
.eperti. 
.epertais 

Verbal noun 
Passive participle 
Participle of necessity 

epert 
eperthae 
eperthi 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.biur 
2 do.bir 
3 do.beiv 
Pass. do.berar, do.berr 

l do.beram 
2 do.berid 
3 do.berat 
Pass. do.bertar 

do.beir ' gives' 
INDICATIVE. 
Present. 
Singular. 
lWOtotonie. 
.tabm" 
.tabair 
.tabair 
.tabarr 
Plural. 
"taibrem 
.taibrid 
"taibret 
.tabartar 



147 

deuterotonic. 
l do.berim 
2 do.bertha 
3 d¢,.bered 
Pass. do.herthe 
1 do.bermis 
2 d«»berthe 
3 d,.berti.s 
Pass. do.bertis 
dcuterotonic. 
l do.bér 
2 do.6érae 
3 do.béra 
Pass. d,».berthar 
1 do.béram 
2 do.bdraM 
3 do.bérat 
Pass. do'bértar 
do.bérthar 
deuterotonic. 
1 do.bérimt 
2 do.bértha 
3 do.bérad 
Pass. do.bérthe 

Imperfect. 
Singular. 
prototonie. 
.taihrhtn 
.t«tbartha 
.taibred 
.t««barthe 
Plural. 
.tabarmt 
"tabarthc 
.talmrtis 
.tabartis 
Future. 
Singular. 
1 «'ototouic. 
.tibdr 
.tibdra 
.tibdrthar 
Plural. 
.tibérc« 
.tibéraid 
.til»érc«t 
"tibét 
l'assi e. 
ingular. 
.tibérthcr 
Future Preterite. 
Shgular. 
lwototonic. 
.tibérim 
.tibérta 
.tibérc«d 
.tibérthe 



1 do.bérmis 
2 do.bérlhe 
3 do.bertis 
Pass. do.bértis 

148 

Plural. 
.tibermis 
.tibérthe 
.tibértis 
• tibé'tis 

Preterite. 

deuterotonic. 
1 (do.biurt) 
2 do.birt 
3 do.bert 
Pass. do.breth 

Singular. 
prototonic. 
(.taburt) 
.tabirt 
.tabart 
.tabrad 

1 do.bertmar 
2 do.bertid 
3 do.bertatar 
Pass. do.bretha 

Plural. 
.tabartmar 
.tabartid 
.tabartatar 
(.tabartha) 

Perfect (in sense of ve). 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.rata.« 
2 do.rati. 
3 do.rat 
Pass. do.ratad 

Siugular. 
prototonic. 
.tartus 
.tart«is 
.tarat 
.tarat 

1 do.vatsam 
2 do.rat.id 
3 do.mtsat 
Pass. do.ratta 

Plural. 
• tic 't.s'a m 
.tar.¢aid 
.tartis.s.et, .tartsat 
.tarta 



149 

Perfect (in sense of '1,ring'). 

deuterotonic. 
l do.uccus 
2 dom«cis 
3 do.ui«, do.«« 
Pass. do.tccad 
1 do.uicsem 
2 
5 do.m'.«t 
Pass. do.uctha 

Sing. 
1 
• 2 tab«tir, tui 
3 taibred 

I/IPERATIVE. 
Plur. 
taibrem 
taibrM 
t a ib re t 

SUBJUNC'FIVE. 

Present. 

deuterotonie. 
1 do.ber 
• 2 do.berue 
3 do.bera 
Pass. do.berth.r 
1 do.beram 
 do.berM 
3 do.berat 
Pass. do.bert(tr 



150 

Preterite. 
Singular. 
deuterotonic, l«'ototonic- 
1 do.beraim .taibrim 
2 do.berlha .tabarlha 
3 do.berad .taibred 
Pass. do.berthae .tabarthae 
Plural. 
1 &,.berma: .tabarmi. 
2 do.berthae .tabarthae 
3 do.bertai,. .ta5artai. 
Pass. do.berta .rabattais 

Sul,junctive corresponding to perfect do.rat. 

Present. 
Ningular. 
deuterotonic, prototonic. 
1 do.rat .fart 
2 do.ratae .tartae 
3 do.rala .tarta 
Pass. do.rattar .tartar 
Plural. 
1 do.ratam .tartam 
2 do.rataid .tartaid 
3 do.ratat .tarta! 
Pass. do.rattar .ta rtar 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.rataimt 
2 do.ratta 
3 do.ratad 
Pass. do.rattae 

Preterite. 
Ningular. 
prototonic. 
.tartaimt 
"tarta 
• ta rtad 
• ta rt«e 



1.51 

deuterotonie. 
I do.rafmai. 
2 do.rattae 
3 do.rattais 
Pass. do.rattai. 

Plural 
prototonw. 
.tartmm 
.tartae 
.tarais 

Suhjunctive corresponding to do.uc 

deuterotonie. 
1 do.uc 
2 do.t«ecae 
3 do.t«cca 
Pass. do.ucthar 
etc. 

Present. 
Ningular. 
prototonie. 
.ttç 
.tccae 
.tm'tar 
etc. 

I do.uccainn 

Preterite. 
Singular. 
.tuccainn. 

Verbal noun 
Participle of necessity 

tabart, tabairt. 
tabarthL 

do.gnl ' does.' 

INDICATIVE. 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.gnhe (.gn5n) 
2 do.gn[ 
3 do.gn[ 
Pass. do.gMther 

Present. 
Singular. 
prototonie 
.ddnim 
.déni 
.déni 
.déntar 



1 do.gdmmis 
2 do.guithe 
3 do.ynltis 
Pass. do.gnitis 

deuterotonic. 
1 do«jén 
2 do.géuae 
3 do.géta 
Pass. do.géutar 
1 do.géuam 
2 do.génid 
3 do.gguat 
Pass. (do.gdta ta r) 

152 

Plural. 
prototonic. 
.dénam 
.ddMd 
.démt 
"dénatar 

imperîect. 
Singular. 
prototolfiC 
.dénimt 
(.dénta) 
.dénad 
.déute 

I qui'al. 
"déumis 
.dénte 
• ddu tis 
"déntis 

Future. 

Singular. 
prototonic. 
.digen 
.digne 
.diguea 
.digetar 
Plural. 
• alignera, "digemtm 
.dignid 
.diguet 
(.digniter) 



15:» 

Future Preterite. 

Preterite. 

Sg. 3 do'gd»H, prototon. "tligti, 1,1. 3 do.géinset. 
Pass. do.gdth, 1,rototon..d&uut. 

Perfect. 

Ningulal'. 
l,rot«tonie. 
j .deirgdms 
J oe.dergeds 
J .deirgéni, .dcrni 
[.deirgmi, .deirgni 
.dernad 

1 do.roé.am 
2 do.rigétMd 
3 do.rognsat 
t':tss, do.rdnta 

Plural. 
oe.dergesid 
.derg(nsat 
.dernta 



»UBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 
Singular. 
prootonie. 
.d&ae 
.tl&m 
Plural. 
.dénid 
.dénat 
.dénatar 

deuterotonic 
1 do.geimz 
2 do.g»tetha 
3 do.g»teth 
Pass. do.gnethe 
1 do.gwmmi. 
2 do.gnethe 
3 do.g»wti. 
Pass. d(,'gnet 

Preterite. 
Singular. 
prototo,ie. 
.dénta 
.d&tad 
• dé», te 
Phu'al 
.dénmi." 
.d&te 
.ddntis. 
• d& tis 

Sing. 
1 
2 dé»e 
3 d&md 

IMPERATIVE. 
Plut. 
dénM 
dénat 

Verbal noun 
Passive participle 
Participle of necessity 

d&tom, dénum 
(d&tte) 
d&ti, dginti 



absolute. 
1 
2 tégi 
3 tgit 
rel. téte 
Pass. tagair 
1 llagmai 
rel. t[agmae 
2 téit 
3 t$agait 
rel. tiagtae 
Sg. 3 .téiged 
absolute 
1 rea 
2 reg(te 
3 regaM 
rel. 
Pass. ri,athir 

155 
téit ' goes' 
INDICATIVE. 
Present. 
Singular 
eonjunet. 
.t[ag 
.téig 
.tét 
.tiagar 
l'lural. 
.tagam 
.tgit 
.t$agat 
Pl. 3 .teigti.« 
etc. 
utur¢. 
Singular. 
emOuuct 
.regae 
. 
*'wgthor 



156 

ahsolute. 
rel. regme 
2regthe 
3 rega[t 
rel.%'egte 

t'Ira'al. 
eonjunct. 

Future Preterite. 
.ing. Plur. 
• 2 "vigtha ('rigthe) 
3 "ri,dad .regtais 

Preterite. 
Sg. 3 luid, rel. hdde, pass. ethae ;1,1. 3 

Perfect. 
Singular. 
leuterotonic. lwototonic. 
1 do.cood .de('hud 
2 do.cood .dechud 
3 do.coïd, do.cuaM .dechuid 
Pass. do.coa. (.dic]e.s) 
Plural. 
I do.commar "de«hummar 
2 do.roMM "digtith 
3 d,,cotar, d«»cuatar .de«hutar 



157 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 
tlas.u, &e. : v. § 129. 

t'hu'al. 
I (do.coisem) .dechnm 
2 do.coisid "diff:';«l 
3 do.coiset .dich.et 

Preterite. 
Singu|ar. 
dettterotottic, pr,totonic. 
1 do.coi.inn .dichs.(dm 
2 do'coista (.di«ha.ta) 
3 do.coised .dichsed 
Plural. 
1 do.coismi. (.di,'he.mi.s.) 
2 do.coiste (.dicheste) 
3 do.coistis .decb.aiti. 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.tlag 
" d tdig 
 O" 
3 do.tét 
Pass. do.tiagar 



1 do.t[agam 
2 do.tdt 
3 do.t[agat 
1 d..téiginn 
etc. 
deuterotonic. 
1 do.rcg 
3 (do.rega 
) do.riga 
1 do.regam 
2 do.reg(dd 
3 do.regat 
. ( do.regad 
S,,.._ «[d,,.rgctd. 

Plural. 
.tait 
"taOat 
! m perfect. 
Singular. 
(.tdiginn) 
etc. 
Future. 
Singular. 
prototonic. 
I .tery(« 
I .tirga 
Plural. 
.terga[d 
.tergat 
Future Preterite. 
( .th'ffad 
etc. 

Sg. 3 do.luM 
Pass. do.eth 
1'1. 3 do.lotar 
deuterotonie 
1 do.dechud 
3 do.de«huid 

1 do.dechommar 
3 do.dechutar 

Preterite. 
.tolid 
etc. 
.tultatar 
Perfect. 
ingular. 
prototonic. 
.tuidched 
Pass..tuMche. 
Plural. 

.tuid«hetar 



159 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.tias 
3 do.t(i 
etc. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 
Sinular. 
prototonic. 
-tde.q 
.tai 
etff. 

deuterotonic. 
1 do.téMnn 
etc. 

Preterite. 
Singu]ar. 
1,rototonic. 
.tai.inn 
etc. 

Subjunctive corresponding to Perfect. 
Present. 
Singtllar. 
deuterotonic. 1,rototonie. 
3 do.de«ha .tudi,'h, .tuidi9 
cte. etc. 

Preterite. 
Singular. 
3 do.dh'h.ed .tuidehissed 
etc. etc. 

IMPERATIVE. 
Sg. 2 tait Pl. tait 
3 tait, tdet taig, t 
There is a subi. fonned from this t«ti»" of the 2nd sing. 
imper, riz. 3rd sg. terri, tab" "let him corne," pl. tairset. 



160 

APPENDIX D. 

SI'ECI31EN,'-; I»l," OLI) IRI,'-;H I'HO.'-;E AND POETRY. 

First .Stage. 
1. D.laffni maqi D.li ()ham) 'of lalagnos, the son of 
lht]os.' . Lie Luff«aedon ma««i 3Ienuch 'The stone of 
l,ugu-ae(|, the son of 3[enh.' 

Aecond Stage. 

1.--FRoM THE CA311;RI HL31II.Y. 
(a) In.cee in.o a.'bcr af ff:da u fi'i «aeb n-oein (lin 
«hen6ht doin¢,re.n-imlarbe anal«bi ovd o«u. a pectht 
ocu.; a ra.tin,ffa .oal,'h i o«u« a'e'n-a irema fi«th u o««. airde 
«rt««h« af ('hr[.t, céin h«s i ««m,u. «virp ocus «mme. aire. 
se«hetha" Mb'tu a../ëd, t i n-da9n[m'athih. 
(b) .li" i., d a becs nta beth ha 9al««r I»e« fin" corp 
duini, m« ffovith Io«.e «ith b, e chm nu b, e ldbn nu in e 
n6raib, fo.geb" a t-ggalar in uile eorp : is amlith i. 
comada. duret chani.s'in, fo.n-gera ca,'h n-évnail ()6ire 
mmdcm membre" uili (ht 1)ea--a('h cd..alh ocu.s" a 
cala" be.«, fit5" e chonme..am. 
(c) Fihts tre «henéhe nm'tre daneu ad.rhnito" af 
cbrub'b da duiniu net dos.gng : baanmart'e ocus glas- 
• ma't'e ocres dergma'tre. L M i.r bŒEnma'tre dt,. duiniu 
in tain rca»'as av Dea fi'i ca«h reet cara.% ce vu.cEsa dt)ri 
nu l, ubi»" -oco ; is si ind glasm«o.tve d6, in tain s«ara 
ff'i, thola leu t cd, sa. rdithor i lqemdt ocus aithrigi: i.« si 
in der«mavtre d6, foditt, chmwhe octs dior«ne et»" ChrL.t, 
ara,il tond.echomnuchub" dundaib ab.tolaib, oc in9vim- 
mire inna cloen ocui.« oe jbrcetul recto Dee. Con.9aibeta" 
imm tre chenél martre so i.snib colnidib tu.thégot dag- 
atbrigL .carde fi'ia tota, cgste s6ithu, tt.e.s.mot a fitil i 
-«Hni ocuis i laubai" af CbrLrt. Filus d,nett tre chenéle 
nart»'e ,tta ldgmara le Dea, ara.n-étatbam-ni f,cb'iei, 



161 

Note the arehaie forlllS ced (tad), are (ara), fédot 
(.fi(tdat), Dec (D[a), e (a) poss. pron. 3rd sg., .nmde»t 
(»o»da»), ocds (ocw), fibt.,'=fil with sutlixed proie. 3rd 
pl., amctil (a»al), dodaib (domdb), and the verhs with 
proclitic te, tt (de, dt), tt.thégot v. Introd. 

TRANSLATION. 
(a) This is the saying which our lord Jesus saith to 
evel'y one of the race of mon, that ho hanish frein hiln (his) 
vices and his sins, aud that ho gather virtues and reeeive 
stiglnata and signs of the ('ross for Crist's sake, se long as 
he is in power of hody a|ld seul, that he follow the traeks 
of oui" I,ol'd in good deeds. 
(b) For this is its usage, if there he any little aihnent on 
a man's body, if it hurns a place, whether in his foot or in 
his hand. or in lais fingers, the disease inflanms the whole 
body. Thus it is fitting fol" us ourselves, that every 
suffering and every aillnent that is on his neighbour should 
inflame erery part (!)--fOl" we are ail inembers unto God. 
(c) New there arc three kinds of Inartyrdoln whieh are 
eounted as a cross te man, if he perforln theln (riz.) white 
nmrtyrdolu, and green inartyrdom, and red inartyrdoln. 
This is the white Illal't)'l'dOIIl te Ill,"tn, when he separates 
for thc sake of God frein evel'ythin:z ho loves, although he 
suflr fasting or labom" thereat: this is the green Inartyrdoln 
te him, when by IlleallS Of thcm (i.e. fasting and labour) he 
separates frein his desires, or suffers toil in pelmnce and 
rclelatance ; this is red martyrdom te hiln, endurance of a 
cross or destruction for Christ's sake, as lins halq,cned te 
the Apostles in the lersecutiol of the wickcd and iii 
teaching the law of God. Thesc three kinds of martyrdom 
are colnlu'ised in the carlml ones who resol't te good 
repentallce, who separate frein their desires, who surfer 
trouhles, who pour forth their blood in fasting and iii labour 
for Christ's sake. There are, then, three kinds of martyr- 
dom which are precious iii God's eyes, for which we obtain 
rewards if we fulfil them. 
1 



162 

2.--FROM THE STOWE |ISS;AL. 
(a) A'a tri ,'hémmet ciige. in fer graith 
 to.cb)g «t'itbi i. ed a tfCe b-imruimdethar «ncb 
«h6te, .i. bi mbrgthir bi coccll bi 
(b) Ls-ed ira t. b« In Dt memnne do buith bi 
.ligraib in (t'ind  ,'orop he to memome id ram ara. 
.t;,cmi db obli amail bilh ball di ('hri.t 
nr««.mbç cro«h ««Htbir.tbr ,'ach e rit fgb, dre t-6etdgether 
fri.in «o crochtbe. 
Note «çfritbi.i (erithii), tocitg (do.cbg), and even fo 
for htter do l,OSS, lwon. 2nd sg. 
TRANSLATIt)N. 
(,t) The thrce stel,s which the ord«dned man steppeth 
1,ackwards and which he ag'ain stel,s forward, this is the 
triad in which everyone sis, Le, in word, in thought, in 
deed. 
(b) This is what Ood deems worthy, the mind to be in 
the symbols of the Mass, and that this be thy mind : the 
1,wtion of the Host which thou reeeivest (to-be) as it were 
ci member of Christ from His Cross, and that there may be 
a cross of lal,our on each fin) his own course, because it 
unites to the crucified Body. 

Third Stage. 
Fo_t THE3[ILAN (_;LOSSES ON THE PSAL_IS. 
1.4 ed.cdl )'br.ailhmiwdar i.imli-.iu : dbt.hdd 
». Iogai re Sdd, hem .ide larron dia tb@m .çom co 
lag,  gabtbe dmd les fris a»" itmillit.. Do.luid 
D(mM iamtm aM«hi ro.bol ctcu im-a n-dbad  luid co 
port i m-boi it 
ri 7 con.oscaig fit gae 3 sdid.s.i li ala #cubm Siul hi 
talmain : 
di»M sl6g 3 ar.9«trt doib di m6di att m«itb «ot.roit«tar 
a-rri9. 'DgcaM n eredig 3 a arma, cia indas rund. 
gabsat ' In ab»sir i»t tind»acuil sitt diditt du.tt-gcom- 
tacht 
8aln 8o. 



163 

TRAN.LATION. 
This is the story to which he rcfers bore: when ])avid 
went into exile 1,clore Saul, t.he latter went aftemvards to 
pursue him wit.h a host, and a camp wzs pitched by him 
(Saul) against him (1)avid) for l,rotection, l)avid then 
came one evening to theln into thcir camp, and he went 
to the I,lace in which the King was in particular, and 
removed the Killg'S cup, and removed the sl,eal" , and fixed 
it 1)y one of Saul's chceks in the ground: and aftcrwards 
the said David weut to a hill that was ncarest to the host 
and humted them thcncc that thcy had not guardcd their 
King well. " Bchold ye his cup and his arlns, ]lOW they 
are" It was at. the time of that giving whereby God 
delivered the afore-mcntioned Saul into his hands that he 
sang this 1,salin. 

Poetry. 
Frot TtIE ST. ÇALL [»RISCIAN. 
1. Is ach«r fit ga:th iwuocht 
jh.j)ta.a Jairgga' fiudçfolt : 
n['d9or réimm ll[,'«t 3[im 
doM IdechraM lai» un Lothlind. 
Note the poetic license in the ordcr of the 
fairgga'fid-filt for prose jbM4EEblt i»ma fidrgg«e. 

words 

TRANSLATION. 

Bitter is thc wind to-night, 
It tosses thc ocean's white hair : 
I fear hot the coursing of the Irish Channel 
By the tierce heroes from Lothleld. 



164 

II. 
Fomm.«hah col memt--medah" mass-- 
h[ i-brot glas, de dindgna[b do.s'. 
dd-brdth  nom-«].»i»di.-co[ma  
cah.,¢'ribaimm jo rohla 
Note the poetic license in the order of u'ordsfidbaid«e 
fdl, rolda ross for prose fil [ma fidbaidw, roa¢ bd rolda ; 
also the infixing hot only of the pronoun but also of the 
subject in no-m-choimmdiu-cohna. 
TRANSLATION. 
I. 
A hedge of trees surrounds me, 
A blackbird's lay sings fo mel,raise which I 
will hot hide 
Al»ove my hooklet the lincd onc 
The trilliug of the birds sings fo me. 

II. 
The clear euckoo sings to me--a beantiful chant-- 
In a gray mantle from the tops of the bushes. 
By the God of I)oom '. May thc Lord protect me ! 
I write well under the greenwood. 

FROM THE CODEX . PAULL 

1. A 1,oem ascribed to Snilme Geilt, a chieftain who 
beeame insaue at the 1)attle of Magh Rath in the year 637. 
Sarauw suggests that his airitcldn was his grave. 

Barr Edin. 



65 

II. 

¢;obbdn du.rigni i,.in-- 
«on.éce.çtar dt«ib a stoir-- 
mu chridecdn, D[a da 
 hé t«ga6ir rod.toig. 

III. 

Tech i-mt.fcra .fie,'hod 
,oaigen 'm«iigder ritdi 
.oil.'Mir bid bi h«gbm.t, 
os é «en «dm««ht t-imbL 

TRAN.-;LATION. 

The Crown of lvy. 

My little oratory in Tuaim Inhir, 
There is hot a full bouse whieh is more pleasing (?) : 
With its st«rs agreeal,ly to (one's) wish, 
With its SUll, with its moon. 

II. 

ç;obbfin bas made that.-- 
That its story may be told to you-- 
My heartlet, God from heaven, 
He is the hateher who has thatehed it. 

III. 

A house wherein rMn l,ours hot, 
A p|ace wherein thon fearest hot spear-points, 
Bright as though in a garden, 
And it without a fenee (.) around it. 



166 

,) 

III. 
(') ru.biam--.«él con .s'cL-- 
im,-ar tegdai. af 
t«ff tb imo--dh'hrlchMe rliu.-- 
ni Jri.4.tarddam af n-dthin.«. 

Gndth h,iaraib af gre.,aib gal 
glenaid hwh bm-a lin .am : 
o." mé. dt:fuit ira Ih ('héin 
dliged n-doraid ct¢ n-dron-çbéill 



167 

VII. 
C'la beimmi amin mwh ré, 
ni.derban «d«b a ché&. 
maith la cechtar ndr a ddn, 
mtbaigthiu., a denm'dn. 

VIII. 
Hé fesin as choim.M drb« 
in muM du.n-gM ca«h 6en-16u ; 
dt thabairt d¢,raM du glé 
./br mt mad «tçu «cm (dru ) mess.c. 

TI;ANSI.ATION. 
I 
I and white l'anvur, 
Each of us at his special art : 
His nlind is at hunting (miee), 
My own miud is in my sl,eeial eraft. 

II. 
love to rest, l,etter than any faine, 
At my hooklet with diligen science : 
White Panmn" is llot envious of llle, 
He himself loves his ehihlish art. 

It is customary at times by feats of valour, 
That a mouse stieks in his net, 
As for me, there falls into my own net 
A ditlqeult dictum with hard meaning. 



16,8 

He points against the wall's fonce 
His eye, this glancing full one ; 
I myself point against the clearness of science 
My clear eye, though Jt is feêhle. 

He is joyOllS with sleedy goin', 
Where  mouse stieks in his sharp claw ; 
Where I undel'stand a diflicult dem' question 
As fol" me, I too ara joyc«ls. 

VII. 
Though we are thus always, 
Neither hinder.,_" the other, 
Each of us tw» likcs his art. 
It (i.e. his art) dclights them (or 'him') by itsclf 
[or 'lt delights him alcme']. 

VIII. 
He himself is toaster 
()f the work which he does every day; 
To lwin difficulty to elearness 
At. my own work (toaster) ara l. 

Note thc rhyme of filial aceented long vowels with filial 
mlaccented short as in elg--ingn5, glé--me.ç.«ê; for the order 
in J)'ega fdl, déne dul, cf. fidbaM«e fdl ; f»'i...t(«rddam is 
for tel. j''isn.tarddam: in m«baigthits the suftixed pronoul 
s is probably hot ldur. or fera. sing., but mase. sing. as 
frequently in Mid. Irish, and rcfers to dd» CThurn.). 



169 
INDEX OF IRISH XVORDS. 

[The references are to pages : m,,st eoml)ound verhs arc 

give,, thus---aeeai (fris)]. 

A 
page 
a (poss. pron.) 50 
a', «'t  (with roc.) 41 
£' ('o@) 131 
al,alliH 133 
aM, :I 5 
aljl ,g'itir 31 
• aeanim (fo) - 119 
• aeeai (fris) 106 
• aeeastar (fris) 106 
-aeeat (fris) 120 
• aeeatar 11 6 
aecns 4i 
achad ] 3 
aehcd 13 
• acht - 21 
aeht 134, ] 35 
acre - I12 
act 134 
acus 131 
ad 112 
a(laas 136 
adaig 30 
adas 41 
adas (eonj.) - 13(; 
adblam 118 
ade 57 
adib 101 
a«h'aim 140 
ad rol'saL 140 
aes 17 
afameinn 1 .)o 

page 
afamenad 133 
a[omensa ] 33 
agid 21 
-iigor 19 
ai 511 
• aieei 106 
aidehe 30 
aidgue 113 
aig 40 
aired 40 
fiil(liu 14 
aile l,, 4s, 59 
aill 43 
• ahl 82 
ainlthiue :19 
aingliu 12 
Ainmire 34 
aillmin 38 
aillllllle :6 
ainsem 1 12 
air 112 
ail" (conj.) 1 :;4 
airdirc 112 
aire 32 
airechdae 42 
airegde 42 
airmdis 104 
«iii'me 20 
airndip 104 
afs 17 
aisndet l 17 



170 

page 
aisndis 117 
• aissclhi (do) - ] 12 
Mthesc - 113 
aitb'ue 88, 113 
aithirriueh - 13 
• aithminter (fur) 119 
aithrea 12 
ala 20 
alaili 59 
alaill 43 
aleeh 34 
• 51gim (fo) 112 
ail 
al,, 34 
al 84 
alt6ir 139 
ara 20, 101 
tire 135 
amail 13, 136 
amal 130, 136 
amein 138 
amiu 13S 
ammi 1 O1 
ammin I O1 
ammns l I 
atone 138 
aIurae t3 
anaeul 
anad - 
anair 60 
almll - 60 
amunchfiirtes 39 
amuneharae - 39 
andess 0 
aneehtair 60 
anzraib 139 
am 26, 59 
aniar 60 

«mis 
amuaimm 
llllltllll 
antfiaid 
.llli 
"alfir 
a l*stal 
11' u 
araile 
ara-th; 
ariette 
ar}mimm 
al'] )or 
ardis 
ardtl 
are 
arggit 
arinlp 
al'llll ,a 
armlip 
arrad (i n-) - 
-an'cher (do) - 
art 
autl 
as (rerb) 
as 
ascae 

60 
37 
37 
45 
60 
37 
6o 
3.5 
117 
19 
!34 
14 
34 
23 
14 
104 
I4 
3,« 
3s 
lo4 
45 
34 
3 
104 
103 
104 
130 
20 
21 
37 
117 
35 
10, 46 
45 



1?1 

page 
101 
• 20, 101 
]12 
113 
]13 
- 113 
1l, 38 
i12 
17, 39 
112 
39 
113 

103 
57, 131 
103. 104 
39 
105 
50 
15 
11 
42 
43 
31 
130 
1t 
113 
54 
30 
30 
42 
85 
13 

-I,ered 
1,erid 
hertit 
bdste 
l,,;sO, IéStl 
1,ethu 
.hotis 
héo, béu 
bi 
bia,l 
hiail 
I ,i I ,d u 
bicc 
hiece 
• 1,idci (do) 
hiid 
bind 
l»indius 
hiru 
hith (fo) 
1,ithe 
hithin (fu) 
-hir 
bivt 
-b/u 
biud 
-lùm' 
bliadain 
hohig 
boeh t 
*bocht 
1,oict 
boie 
l«)ill 

page 
15 
11 
11)4 
a.3, 39 
17, "2"2 
43 
35 
4"2 
4"2 
23 
39 
39 
13o, 
! 30 
71 
s4 
18 
18 
15 
30 
39 
8. 
45 
s6 
100 
43 
lO 
16 



172 

C 
t.ftch 
cSch 
-cachain 
,-aeh-la 
«.adAin 
,-Sech 
caille 
(.;tillmse 
eain 
efii rddine 
efiil'te; 
ealléie, -léiee 
«mnmiph, -aih 
eani, eain 
t';t ll,',i - 

page 
(;S car - 
- 7 s cfirachtar - 
30 carae 
«- d 
.)  earatra 
36 cateat 
38 cath 
34 cathir 
0 .cear (ad) 
s; eech 
34 .eeehan 
34 ecehtar 
30 .eechuin 
:lg ced, ceith 
I l cdimm 
1; cdin ('.df') 
37 cdin, cdiue 
30 ccist 
16 cele 
3 -cdla - 
cclt 
Cll - 
céne 
59 cendl 
59 ccnid 
4 celnnithi 
9 eenn (tar) 
.,N centat 
17 -c6r 
140 cesi 
139 cesh 
47. 139 -cess 
39 cesu 
- 36 cdt 
136 cét (rerb) 
22 cdt- 
135 ccta-hi 
5- cétal 
30 cètl,uid 

page 
18 
- 139 
13, 35 
- 40 
- 56 
1.3, 32 
34 
106 
.59 
S4 
59 
13 
104 
14, 37 
58 
132 
139 
12, 28 
80 
114 
41 
It 
102 
llt 
130 
40 
85 
56 
58 
86 
7, 101 
14, 21, 3.7 
86 
48, llt 
- 11 
- 88 
114 



céte 
• ceth (ad) 
ccthardae 
cctheoir 
cethcora - 
• cether (ad) - 
ccthir 
cctorcha 
cet h ramad 
cethmmthu - 
cethrar - 
ctmad 
cétnae 
cetu 
cetu- 
chem 
chimm (ar, di) 
chuit 
cia (pvon.) 
cia, ce (coj.) 
cial »o 
ciach 
ciaptar 
ciasu 
cwh - 
-cichestar (ad) 
• cichlus (ad) - 
cichnaigistir - 
-ciehurr (fo) - 
cid (interrog.) 
cid, cith 
('111 
cmg 
cmged 
cmgid 
CllI 

page 
7 
106 
49 
8 
106 
47, 
47 
48 
- 49 
49 
- t8 
- 
7, 101 
-t 
34 
130 
130 
130 
56 
136 
103 
34 
103 
lO1 
104 
5 
106 
83 
56 
- 104 
35 
35 
35 
21 
15, 27 

cinta 
cis/ 
cit 
cita-roba 
• cither (ad) 
citnc 
citu- 
ciuir 
'illllll 
• claid (ad) 
claide 
claidcl» 
claidb6nc 
clainde 
claisse 
cland 
clé - 
-cleth 
eli 
cliu 
cloth 
cluincd 
cld 
clfim 
cn«iim 
cmimai 
co (l»'ep.) 
co" (coff.) 
co  (co6.) 
cobodlus 
-cobra 
cocart 
• coemnachtar (do) 
• coi (do) 
c6ic 

page 
33 
104 
114 
106 
5 
16 
42, 87 
140 
86 
43 
43 
43 
16 
67 
39 
1 .t0 
la» 
al 
13 
114 
132 
13, 115 
77 



174 

3(;, 

page 
47 
49 
48 
49 
I15 
115 
84 
115 
114 
115 
104 
115 
104 
115 
104 
11.5 
104 
lO4 
1(}4 
31 
ll5 
103 
11:3 
104 
106 115 
115 
11.5 
1(}1 

czudad 
c.ndae 
collda¢l 
condat - 
• c,,utlairc (ad) 
coudelc 
c.n, 
c-.did 
co.dieig 
COl]ecaL 
courir 
conitged 
coni 
COIIiCC 
conicub 
c6ir 
COI I'l 
conid 
coniptis 
COllll«t 
comdch 
consecraimm 
con-utaing 
.corathar 
corbu 
COl'('lll" 
cor:thdu 
coscc 
cos 
cosmil 
cosmilius 
cosmuil 
cossin 
cote 
coteet 

19, 

page 
101 
42 
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115 
106 
107 
106 
106 
106 
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115 
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104 
106 
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o) .) 
140 
124 
106 
104 
103 
42 
45 
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57 
115 
39 
13 
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56 
56 



175 

Cothraige 
(21"}[1111 
cpd 
creiec 
-Cl'eS8 
ereteln 
eretmeeh 
er/ad - 
eride 
crideefin 
Cl'llilll 
('1'111111 
crnth 
• ,.uaid (ad) 
-efiala 
euhaid 
ell]»tlS 
euimre«h - 
cuimrigib 
cuimsimmis - 
• cuintea - 
cuire 
-euirifar 
euiriur 
"(211111 
-elllllai 
eunmehtaeh - 
eumaehtae 
eumaehtehu - 
cumachtu 
ctlnlallg 
-eumeaibed 
-eumeaL 
-eumgat 
-eumgub 

page 
104 
35 
42 
40 
16 
4l, 137 
36 
115 
34 
115 
"»'» l l 5 
2, 115 
106 
77 
74 
79 
72 
106 
106 
19 
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20 
115 
106 
106 
14, 106 
106 

page 
emntaeh 113 
cmnung lS, 21 
• cm (for) - 1(;, 7l 
cutrumnms - 115 
cut-seear 140 

Do 
dfi 47 
daltae 28 
,laltu "'8 
data (mmn) - "'3 
dan 14 
(laneu 133 
daniu 133 
dano 133 
dar 13, 12s 
dm'ach - 34 
daro 34 
dathar 98 
dàu 17, 47 
dau r 2 l 
dd - 35 
de (prep.) 46, 115 
dëae - 48 
deaeht 39 
dead (i ») 130 
dçcce 115 
dech 46 
deehmad 48 
dechor 115 
ddde 49 
dég 130, 134 
degaid (i u-)- 130 
ddicce 74 
deich - 13, 21, 47 
deichde 49 



176 

deichenhor 
dcithldv 
dc-meccim 
dcmnae 
dolllllll 
denai 
ddne - 
d,:ne (irai,.) - 
d,:nithir 
ddniu 
ddnOln 
ddnum 
ddr 
-dercaiher 
«ldrig 
«leroima 
de-sillabach - 
dcsiu 
dessid - 
de - 
dét (ce,'b) 
deug 
di 
• di (du) 
di (l»'ep.) 
dïa 
dia" (omj.) - 
di;d 
dmll 
dian 
dib 
dil drciud 
dicoissin 
didiu 
-didma 

p3.ge 
49 
42 
2l 
116 
2, 
21 
39 
74 
45 
47» 
19 
11.5 
14 
106 
115 
115 
127 
47 
60 
123 
13, 35 
86 
- 33 
- 47 
77 
- 115 
- 28 
39 
131, 134 
3.5 
28, 115 
39 
47 
23 
105 
- 133 
80 

page 
disaire - 31 
d/gal 40, 115 
di,,.:e 33 
(liglae 17 
diglaid 40 
dile - 17 
diill - 28 
diis - 49 
d/le 37 
dilgcnd 8 
diliu 37 
di-meeeither - 116 
dilm 36 
di.I'ogbad 116 
di-t: 104 
di-taam 1 ()4 
di-that 104 
dithrub 115 
dltiu 8, 115 
dimtag 115 
diull 2,5 
dixnigur 105 
dligtl,ech 19 
dlongid 81 
dlui" 16 
do (prep.) 13, 1°$ , 129 
(lo (pos.. )''O»l.) 50 
d,; - 47 
doail - 20 
do-acaldmach 1:28 
do-l,riathar - 12 
do-éci - 123 
do.cod 115 
docoissin 105 
dochu 45 
dochum 130 
dod-f,ngad 118 
do-fuisim 125 



177 

doieh 
-dold 
doinaeh 
cio/ni 
do-in61a 
do.léiei 
Çl,,-mmeiceither 
dolllllll 
domes]»c 
dorchae 
do-ra¢ 
do.rega 
do-riga 
do.rigni 
do.riltiset 
do.rogl»ad 
drel »rang 
drui 
.duaid 
d ul » 
d ul »glass 
dfiil 
(lflilcm 
duinn 
duini 
duiniu 
dundaib 
dfls 
dfithracht 

E 

é, (h)é 
ec|l - 
eebrad - 

4.5 
1(17 
30 
13 
116 
20 
133 
43 
128 
1 "28 
128 
127 
- 17 
116 
85 
17, 35 
107 
16, 44 
42 
40 
40 
40 
40 
29 
29 
25 
57 
16 

49 
117 
15 
40 

echtar 
echtar-geindi 
ecilsc - 
eclais - 
eclastai - 
-ecmaing 
• eemaing (do) 
ecolso 
cd, (h)ed 
edhart - 
• Aici (do) 
eirr 
eirred 
• Cl'set (ass) 
éis (do) 
disc 
eisse 
• ella (do) 
cllach 
ellug (i 
dlued 
élnithid 
éhtd 
é111 
emith, emid - 
Cil ,9,o,e _ 
énirt 
eoeh 
eoehu - 
Eoehu 
epert - 
-epret 
el,scop - 
¢1" 
• el'a - 
erdairc 
érice 
Eriu 

page 
ll6 
ll6 
20 
139 
87 
126 
106 
49 
ll2 
106 
123 
117 
130 
28 
107 
ll6 
123 
130 
40 
ll7 
135 
131 
123 
lit 
2. 
34 
ll7 
19 
19 
112 
85 
112 
ll7 
37 



178 

esl ae 
escarae 
ési (tar) 
esrechtait 
• essarr (do) 
ess:irgiu 
-Pstnr 
estir 
-é 
et, arcer 
etargne 
etarthothaim 
eter.certa 
• Cer (con) 
etir-gen 
etrantach 
éu 
llIl 

Fo 
fit 
fAcab 
.fAeib 
fadéin 
fadesin 
fa-dess 
fdilid 
faillsem 
f,ilti 
fAiltiu 
fSith 
fithsine 
far, bar 
far-cuimsitis 
fedan 

41, 

page 
117 
117 
13O 
117 
117 
17 
1)7 
77 
4 
117 
117 
117 
llï 
123 
IlS 
llï 
34 
1S 

57, 131 
119 
: 58 
58 
59 
39 
45 
39 
45 
39 
39 
50 
119 
88 

feib 
féich - 
f,:in - 
fele - 
fn - 
• feotar (do) - 
fer 
ferAn 
ferr 
fessin 
-festar 
fiach - 
f/ad 
fiada - 
fiadn 
f/al 
.fiastnr 
fib 
fiche 
fichetmad 
figor - 
fil - 
file 
filedach 
fili 
film 
finnad 
fir 
tir 
firiSn 
firiSnamam - 
firiSnu 
firu 
fiss 
fin 
fiur 
fiurt 
fiechod 

page 
33, 136 
9g 
15 
107 
15 
4O 
46 
IlS 
36 
37 
140 
81 
136 
35, 46 
48 
19, 
98 
39 
34 
15 
67 
15 
18 
- 45 
45 
- 45 
18 
33 
15, 23 
140 
- 19 



fleuchud 
fo 
fochell 
fo-chdtoir 
f6cre 
fochraicc 
fo.daim 
fodil 
foditin 
.fodlat 
fo.fera 
foglaimm 
foglitnthid 
foich 
.foichiurr 
foich|eoir 
foide 
foflenu 
foil.se 
.foima/ 
fofndel 
foirl»the 
foirethi 
.foisitis 
fi,llus 
fo-16 
fol'l:-hnide 
• ri,nus (do) 
fol" 
forl,aide 
forcanti 
forcuimset 
fordmid 
fort ,gaire 
fortacht 
for-tdt 
forthacht 
fota 

page 
19 
49, 118 
40 
119 
IlS 
ll9 
19 
12 
119 
40 
40 
139 
40 
12 
139 
17 
118 
87 
81 
4 
77 
42 
81 
ll9 
87 
87 
107 
117 
4 
30, 119 
119 
119 
- 3 

fraig 
freecor 
frccndairc 
frecre 
frega 
fregre 
• fi'cseaehtar - 
fresesiu 
fridoirced 
fris-air 
• frith (fo) 
frith 
fi'ithoreon 
filait 
-ffiairc 
fudumain 
fudmm'ui 
fugall 
fugell 
• fuit (do) 
-fui 
fulach 
fur-aithmintêr 

• gaba (fo) l 
gabil l 
• gfid - 
-g;tde 
gaimred 
gais - 
gaith - 
gai - 
gé 

page 
.31 
II 
4, | 0 
31 
1o0 
10 
120 
10 
10 
10 
1"20 
10 
118 
44, 118 
44 
13 
13 
IOï, 
77 
88 
119 

106 
12 
30 
86 
86 
21, 40 
39 
39 
87 
17 
77 



180 

-géba 
• géba (fo) 
gebtit 
• gega (do) - 
-gegrann (fo)- 
"géna 
genitiu 
-gess 
gessa 
gessi 
-glas 
glenamon 
glenn 
-glmm 
glinne 
gnfis 
gmifl 
gnethe 
-gniu (do) 
gobae 
-gde 
oi 
-goit. 
gotho 
gnid 
FI 
grhn 
grega 
• greim (ad) - 
• greim (in) 
grés (do) 
guide - 
guirid 
guth - 

I 
iaeh 

page 
80 
106 
54 
80 
84 
80 
37 
76 
76 
87 
88 
38 
86 
38 
39 
14, '2.1 
87 
18 
37 
86 
17 
86 
3'2. 
139 
31 
14 
31 
1:23 
123 
138 
30 
21 
32 

34 

page 
iar 121 
iarm- - 121 
iarma.foieh - 122 
iarmi-foig - 122 
iarmua 121 
iarmuidigthe 121 
/ami - 20 
iarsind i 132 
iartain 137 
far-thuaiscerddach 121 
iarum - 13 7 
ibid 15, 22 
• ic (ar) 113 
• icht 86 
idhart 112 
idib 1 O1 
il 45 
illei 59 
iml) (noun) - 22 
iml) (verb) 104 
iml) (prep.) - 122 
imhechtrach - 12"2 
imbide 12"2 
imbliu 22 
ira brfidub 1:22 
imchSinti 122 
immalle 138 
immallei 138 
immauetar 13s 
immenetor 138 
imme-rfidi 122 
immolang 5 
• imnmlngi 118 
immurgu - 135 
imued 19 
imniud 19 
iml) 10.t 
impfid 20, 122 



m-nidi 
ilnthrénugud 
m (interrog.) 
m (prep.) 
lllainl 
inchosc 
in(1 
llldll 
lll(]as 
i d:u'be 
 ndatae 
-in(let (as) 
ind6 
mdechtso 
mdib 
indip 
indixnigedar 
m-dlung 
mdocbS1 
indorsa 
indossa 
mdred 
infechtsa 
luge - 
mgen (' hall') 
mgen (' dmhter') 
lngt 
migena 
mis 
imfid 
llllli 
nmocht 
lllllOllll 
ln-otgat 
qnotsat 
lllSe 
lllill 

41, 

1S1 

page 
1"22 
122 
56 
123 
lo 
123 
123 
25 
9S 
123 
98 
117 
137 
137 
104 
105 
123 
123 
137 
137 
123 
137 
136 
23 
123 
41 
123 
30 
D 
137 
137 
137 
59 
107 
81 
3O 
57 

illSO 
insuidigthe 
in tain 
intamil 
in tan 
inti 
intremdid 
intsamil 
iorr- 
if 
iriu 
irlam 
Matou 
1s 
is (verb) 
is (conj.) 
/sel 
lSill 
isiu 
issa 
issat 
issid 
issum 
issum 
it 
itSu 
ithall 
itius 

kalde 

la 
-ltl,rastar 

20, 

page 
123 
131 
123 
131 
26 
137 
81 
37 
45 
45 
101 
131 
43 
26 
26 
54 
53 
53 
53 
54 
39 
101 
98 
_'26 

124 
83 



182 

laigiu 
hiir 
hiiréne 
htitu,)ir 
la-se 
lat 
|athe 
le 
lcl)lang 
lcl)or 
.loe 
• legt (do) 
légaid 
léiciub 
ldilm 
|Cllmloll 
leth 
leth (' hal.f') 
lethan 
lethe 
léu 
li 
|utc 
]iathritae 
|ie 
ligid 
-lil 
-lili 
lin 
lingid 
lit" 
loathar 
loclmd 
|oche 
1,',cher 
-lod 

page 
3`6 
40 
40 
3`O 
131 
53 
29 
17 
139 
81 
139 
33 
38 
3`9 
"22 
38 
15 
139 
33` 
85 
80 
15 
85 
45 
77 
35 
15 
36 
85 

-lodmar 
• longid (fo) 
-lotar 
1,thor 
1/md 
lùaith 
lfiaithred 
lfibgart6ir 
luch 
Lugaid 
hlg]»tlrt 
lugu 

m, nla (çoj.) 
Ill ('0/).) - 
111111 
III ;X (2 C 
mad 
lllg" 
maige 
mailgih 
mainba 
mMubad 
maith 
màl 
nlalae 
mahlacht 
mallacht 
manid 
.qu[n] 
marcfr 

page 
20 
83 
20 
15 
3`0 
40 
40 
35 
33` 
46 
13` 

133 
46 
46 
3, 13 
3`7 
104 
3 
38 
34 
103 
104 
44 
14 
33 . 
11 
11 
133 
18 
45 
15 
lO 



183 

page 
masu 7, 101 
mat 104 
m«ithir 14, 3,q 
matin 137 
matis 104 
md 49 
mebuir 13 fl 
mebul 139 
medg "22 
méit 30, 137 
melid 24 
• mem 82 
menmae o  
menmuin 13 
mesar ] 39 
mess 32 
messa 46 
messe 49 
messi  - 
mestar 77 
• met 6 
mi 13, 39 
raid 21 
midar 5 
-midethar (ad) 112 
mil 15 
mil 35 
Milcon 37 
toile 47 
mfled 35 
Miliuce 37 
mind 32 
mis 39 
• mitter 10 
mm 23 
nmi 30 
mo (poss. 1»'on.) 50 
md 46 

nl;anl 
moch 
m,;ir 
moiti 
-molastar 
m6r 
m6r-chenn 
m6r-feser 
mdrthae 
lllOS- 
mrath 
mrccht 
mrechtrad 
mruig 
mucc 
m g 
roui 
nlllicc 
llltlCCe 
inuir 
lnuisse 
muirm6ru 
Mumu 

N 
naeea 
nacce 
nach (pron.)- 
n:ieh 
nacha (pron.) 
nach tan 
nfid (wg) 
nad (top.) 
nade 

Fage 
4(; 
138 
45 
54 
83 
45 
42 
49 
42 
40 
40 
16 
33 
16 
0 
33 
33 
31 
5O 
139 
37 

62 
104 
63 
63 
63 
5 
62 
59 
131 
57, 62 
- 62 



184 

imdip 
naicc 
niddm 
naip 
nmae 
I1/11 
Ilall(l 
uandat 
uani 
I111, 
mit 
uatat 
late 
nathar 
nathir 
natho 
liech 
nechtar 
neh't 
lloEdae 
-IlOlll 
lleph-icthe 
lleS 
net 
ni (pron) 
iii (neg.) 
uiad 
niae 
mb 
nibo 
niCOli 
• nig (do) 
nhue 
ninlfil 

page. 
104 
62 
104 
36 
102 
102 
102 
59 
102 
50 
102 
10:2 
6:2 
50 
33 
63 
58 
59 
28 
39 
7 
46 
46 
.38 
62 
35 
55 
104 
104 
62 
39 
53 

n/mth< 
-nimis 
liio 
nioth 
uip 
nil)tha 
nisfil 
nita 
uitad 
nitam 
niuil - 
no- (preverb) 
lloch 
ndchu 
noidiu 
n6mad 
n&)l)ar 
Ilond 
lmndad 
lmndan 
notire 
lltlae 
mde 

6 
6a 
bac 
oblu 
oc 

Oo 

page. 
53 
81 
3.5 
35 
104 
104 
9S 
9 
101 
lol 
101 
loi 
lol 
28 
61) 
131 
135 
47 
47 
37 
48 
49 
102 
102 
40 
131 
23 

12t 
lo2 
6 
6 
7 
1:26 



185 

6cb«l 
ocCU-l'ol)ae 
oehsal 
oeht 
oehtar 
oehtmad 
ochtmogo 
oemaide 
.ocmanatar 
ocu.beu 
ocu.hether 
ocu-] 
ocu-hiat 
ocuis 
oPUS 
odl) 
,',en-feeht 
• of (con) 
oiged 
oigi 
-oile (as) 
Oil 
oinar 
oh'dnide 
ois 
oifiu 
ol 
ole 
oldaas 
ohlai 
oldStae 
oldu 
ommrid 

page, 
-." 124 
126 
-) 
16, 47 
49 
47 
126 
1"_'6 
126 
126 
1"6 
12; 
131 
20, 131 
17 
49 
17 
39 
35 
35 
124 
17, 47 
49 
3. 
42 
17 
35 
61, ] 34 
- 43 
- 3 
98 
98 
98 
- 98 
- 138 

opad 
opair 
• ol)uir (ad) - 
ol'l)e 
orc.tlm 
,;pe, (h)dre 
ordi 
-orL 
ol'tao 

PMt'aicc 
penlfit 
Itel's,'tll 
persine 
l.hepid 
phiur 
p6c 
popul 
posit 
preeept 
pl'eeept6ir 
ln'edehid 
pridehid 
prfiu- 

R 
• raeatar (fris) 
rainl (a) - 
rSith (di) - 

page. 
12 
16 
1, 134 
13 
14, 14, 
,7 
126 

P 
39, 139, 140 
- 139 
30 
3O 
139 
140 
31 
140 
40 
139 
139 
49 

49 

106 
130 
130 
106 



-i'ala 
-ralad 
-ralsaç 
«'trpaar 
1" 
• rdcatar (do) - 
reicc 
-reilced 
reme.uuicsed 
rcmi-taat 
remsuidigud - 
rcnthcchtas - 
renMd 
relldo 
rcsiu 
rt, glu 
rcthit 
ri 
riagol 
-rlC 
FICC 
I'lCH 
• rirai (ad) 
rllld 
Tir 
-1'11" 
F1SH 
rithc 
ro 
rob 
robo 
• rochain (for) 
-rochMr (do) - 

page. 
IOG 
106 
106 
106 
V5 
126 
l 06 
127 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
ll7 
6 
32 
132 
37 
19 
15, 33 
15 
137 
127 
127 
15 
112 
32 
$5 
80 
432 
63, 64, 65, 127 
131 
,5 
19 

• rodarcar (ad) 
rodbo - 
• r,;ethach (ad) 
rogid - 
rogu 
roiblang 
ro-iccu - 
• roichan (for) 
rochan 
-rochechuatar 
-ro-g 
• ro/granu (in) 
"l'Oigl'&llll 
• rofgu (do) 
• roisc (cou) 
-roilli (as) 
rob 
rol«ad 
-rolad 
rolsg 
FOlll 
roqiM * 
rombia 
romdis 
FOIlISP 
Fouirai" 
rondgal) 
ro-61ach 
rop 
ropo 
ro-saig 
-rorthatar 
-r6tacht 
roth 
• rothuusa (do) 
ro.ucad 
rfiad 
• rnaldatar (in) 

page. 
106 
131 
5 
23 
39 
127 
13 
127 
14- 
4 
0 
77 
112 
106 
106 
106 
106 
103 
127 
100 
lo2 
103 
103 
105 
127 
104 
104 
85 
21 
107 
127 
15 



• rubart (as) 

S 

page. 
127 
16 

26 
- 139 
59 
139 
44 
l-4 
18, 34 
34 
59 
14 
15 
40 
5O 
54 
59 
23 
131 
28 
7 
21 
139 
5 
47 
61, 127 
134 
104 
21 
12 

sechmo- 
seehlno-ella - 
sec'ht 
scehtae 
sechtair 
sechtmal 
sechtmogo 
sechtmogat 
secnd- 
séde 
seiche 
seir 
sciss 
séitehe 
sel 
selb 
selg 
semtdir 
sellosLer 
seYçe 
scrcae 
scrnaid 
serr 
Sessed 
scsser 
-set 
sethar 
sethar (pro»r) 
sétig 
si 
s/ans 

|27 
2|, 47 
- 49 
::6, t7 
47 
49 
35 
»1 
49 
23 
4O 
140 
4 
3 
12 
7g 
49 
50 
49 
t6 
46 
15 



188 

sar 
side 
sieir 
-sil 
sin 
slnill 
Sllllli 
SIl" 
Sl.qi 
SlSlli 
Slssi 
$1II 
;I 11111 
1111" 
sim',,at 
slaidid 
slSntu - 
• slecht - 
déibe - 
sleBlOn 
sl¢ab 
• dig (ad) 
slige 
snechte 
SII 
snni 
Slllsni 
sn/the 
80 SP 
so-chenefiil 
sochumach - 
sochmach 
sodain 
.oilse 
soirb 
soirbem 

page. 
5'.) 
49 
57 
49 
46 
59 
49 
49 
49 
- 49 
13, 18, 38 
41) 
8l 
39 
86 
39 
23 
"2"2, 38 
88 
88 
23 
49 
49 
49 
S7 
26 
42 
19 
19 
59 
30 
45 
45 

soirl »ithir 
soirfed 
SO I11 
0111111&illlenl - 
SOlllIlle 
S(tll 
sonail'l 
sonaraidir 
so-nir 
SOl'Il 
soscélae 
srethi 
srlan 
Sl'(tll 
srogdl 
sruth 
stoir 
al&Il 
sflanmn 
sflas 
sude 
sui 
suide 
suide (pron.) 
sfiil 
Stllld 
superlait 
suthain - 
sut.hainidir 

T 
"tS. 
tabart 
tacco 
taccu 
tai 

page, 
45 
18 
49 
45 
45 
49 
45 
45 
42 
140 
12 
140 
15 
140 
16 
31, 139 
15 
37 
59 
16 
35 
21 
57 
31 
28 
59 
31 
45 
45 

98 
151 
63 
63 
50 



189 

tai 
taige 
tair - 
tairmchosal - 
tairmt, hecht - 
tairse - 
tairsiu 
talam 
tall 
-talla 
tahnaidiu 
tiuaic 
t.,naise 
tane 
tanu 
tar - 
tapais 
.tal'at 
tarb - 
tarmi-berar- - 
tarreheE 
tare 
tthunn - 
tt, hus 
t;ithut 
-t«iu 
-té 
té 
tee 
tcccomnocuir 
tech - 
techtaire 
techtaite - 
tecmongat - 
tecnate - 
tecosc - 
teg 
teglach 

page. 
3 
3 
59 
128 
37 
26, 59 
137 
5 
4 
15 
45 
12, 
128 
12 
113 
15 
54 
54 
54 
17 
13 
44 
o.) 44 
107 
38 
40 
71 
107 
10 
123 
- 21 
- 

.tC.,«ot 
teilciud 
teist 
telt 
.tella 
Tentait 
Tenlrach 
rI'Pllll" 0 
tcne 
tengae 
teoir 
teora 
-terga 
tert- 
tess 
tessim 
testa 
testimin 
tiach 
tiag 
.tiagat 
trac 
tasu 
t'astair 
tihéra 
tic 
tig 
tinchosc 
tindarscan 
.tinib 
-tila 
tfl'that 
tis 
tlenamon 
to 
toead 

page. 
15 
77 
12s 
16 
41 
32 
32 
32 
35 
31 
48 
128 
49 
59 
117 
117 
31 
74 
15 
59 
76 
76 
128 
12 
127 
77 
12,q 
40 
59 
8 
12$, 129 
12s 
- 



190 

t6cb;il 
toceth 
t.oehmare 
.todsat 
• t,;eth (do) 
to[tmn 
togu 
toimseo 
toimtiu 
toseeh 
• tomnibther - 
tmgid 
topur 
-torehar 
-torehair 
t6rmaeh 
tol'thissem 
tosge 
tossaeh 
tossueh (adv.) 
-toth - 
tothaim 
-totsag 
trA 
traig 
tre (prep.) 
tfCe 
tremdid 
tremi- 
tvemi-berar - 
trél 
tves 
tt-essa 
tressam 
tri 
tri (p'e) 
triar 
trian 

page. 
124 
13 
128 
107 
1o7 
39 
16, 19 
36, 88 
17 
6S 
12.5 
107 
19, l(ff 
107 
2S, 125 
138 
107 
12 
107 
- 133 
34 
129 
139 
129 
12 
46 
4 
46 
46 
21. 47 
129 
49 
- 49 

trieha 
trichatmad 
triphne 
Tvinddit 
tris 
triuss 
troeh 
tronlm 
tr(I 
tfiaid 
tI'UIIlIIIll 
tU 
-tfiail'e 
tfialang 
tuargab 
trias 
tflasulcud 
tfiatae 
tfiath 
tfiatha 
tuirem 
.tuisim 
• tuit (do) 
-tuiter 
-tultatar 
tussu 

U 
(h)fla-bla 
flad-ffalichthe 
flaisli 
flaislimen 
fiaithed 
flar 
(h)fiare (conj.) 

page 
36, 47 
48 
• ) .) 
139 
49 
41 
:»2 
45 
?,2 
7,9 
- 45 
49 
118 
41 
125 
59 
124 
42 
15, 30 
18 
19 
125 
107 
i07 
85 
49 

132 
- 125 
125 
- 43 
- 45 
- 13 
15 
134 
126 



fiasa! 
imsa|-ahir 
flasllm 
fiathad 
llCCll 
ucut 
ugae 
uf 

191 

43 uilc 
34 uile 
126 ungae 
13, 49 ulcu 
39 
39 
17 ymmon 
39 

Y 

page. 
43 
43 
| 3, 30, 139 
4 

Belfa«t : ALEX. M.VNE & BORD. Printers to the Queen's University of I,elfast. 



PB 1223 .036 1912 SMC 
O'Connell, Frederick William 
A grammar of Old Irish